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Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major(More)
Administration of leptin during undernutrition improves reproductive function, but whether this occurs at the level of the brain, pituitary, or gonads is not yet clear. The present study tested the hypothesis that one important mechanism is the control of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Our approach was to determine if leptin(More)
OBJECTIVE Neuronal channelopathies cause brain disorders, including epilepsy, migraine, and ataxia. Despite the development of mouse models, pathophysiological mechanisms for these disorders remain uncertain. One particularly devastating channelopathy is Dravet syndrome (DS), a severe childhood epilepsy typically caused by de novo dominant mutations in the(More)
Current antipsychotics provide symptomatic relief for patients suffering from schizophrenia and related psychoses; however, their effectiveness is variable and many patients discontinue treatment due to side effects. Although the etiology of schizophrenia is still unclear, a leading hypothesis implicates an imbalanced dopaminergic system. Muscarinic(More)
The distribution of cells expressing mu-receptor mRNA and mu-receptor binding sites were compared in brain and spinal cord tissue sections using a combination of in situ hybridization and receptor autoradiographic techniques. mu-Receptor mRNA was visualized with a 35S-labeled cRNA probe directed to transmembrane III-VI of the rat mu-receptor, while(More)
Leptin acts on leptin receptor (LepRb)-expressing neurons throughout the brain, but the roles for many populations of LepRb neurons in modulating energy balance and behavior remain unclear. We found that the majority of LepRb neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) contain neurotensin (Nts). To investigate the physiologic role for leptin action via(More)
Three interleukin-1 inhibitors have been purified to homogeneity from medium conditioned by human monocytes. Partial sequence analysis and digestion with N-glycanase indicate that these are glycosylation forms of a single protein. The protein binds to the interleukin-1 receptor but has no interleukin-1-like activity, even at very high concentrations, and is(More)
We conducted a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 7,481 individuals with bipolar disorder (cases) and 9,250 controls as part of the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium. Our replication study tested 34 SNPs in 4,496 independent cases with bipolar disorder and 42,422 independent controls and found that 18 of 34 SNPs had P < 0.05, with 31 of 34 SNPs(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs with diverse regulatory roles. The miR-124 miRNA is expressed in neurons in the developing and adult nervous system. Here we show that overexpression of miR-124 in differentiating mouse P19 cells promotes neurite outgrowth, while blocking miR-124 function delays neurite outgrowth and decreases acetylated alpha-tubulin.(More)
An important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence of extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Senile plaques are composed of aggregations of small peptides called β-amyloid (Aβ). Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that overproduction/aggregation of Aβ in the brain is a primary cause of AD and inhibition of Aβ generation has(More)