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Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major(More)
Administration of leptin during undernutrition improves reproductive function, but whether this occurs at the level of the brain, pituitary, or gonads is not yet clear. The present study tested the hypothesis that one important mechanism is the control of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Our approach was to determine if leptin(More)
OBJECTIVE Neuronal channelopathies cause brain disorders, including epilepsy, migraine, and ataxia. Despite the development of mouse models, pathophysiological mechanisms for these disorders remain uncertain. One particularly devastating channelopathy is Dravet syndrome (DS), a severe childhood epilepsy typically caused by de novo dominant mutations in the(More)
In this report we describe findings that imply dysregulation of several fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system transcripts in frontal cortical regions of brains from human subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). This altered gene expression was discovered by microarray analysis of frontal cortical tissue from MDD, bipolar, and nonpsychiatric control(More)
Leptin acts on leptin receptor (LepRb)-expressing neurons throughout the brain, but the roles for many populations of LepRb neurons in modulating energy balance and behavior remain unclear. We found that the majority of LepRb neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) contain neurotensin (Nts). To investigate the physiologic role for leptin action via(More)
We conducted a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 7,481 individuals with bipolar disorder (cases) and 9,250 controls as part of the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium. Our replication study tested 34 SNPs in 4,496 independent cases with bipolar disorder and 42,422 independent controls and found that 18 of 34 SNPs had P < 0.05, with 31 of 34 SNPs(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs with diverse regulatory roles. The miR-124 miRNA is expressed in neurons in the developing and adult nervous system. Here we show that overexpression of miR-124 in differentiating mouse P19 cells promotes neurite outgrowth, while blocking miR-124 function delays neurite outgrowth and decreases acetylated alpha-tubulin.(More)
Unlike mammals, teleost fish are able to mount an efficient and robust regenerative response following optic nerve injury. Although it is clear that changes in gene expression accompany axonal regeneration, the extent of this genomic response is not known. To identify genes involved in successful nerve regeneration, we analyzed gene expression in zebrafish(More)
The distribution of cells expressing mu-receptor mRNA and mu-receptor binding sites were compared in brain and spinal cord tissue sections using a combination of in situ hybridization and receptor autoradiographic techniques. mu-Receptor mRNA was visualized with a 35S-labeled cRNA probe directed to transmembrane III-VI of the rat mu-receptor, while(More)
Regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in vivo was assessed via in situ hybridization histochemistry, using probes directed against an intronic sequence of the CRH gene. Initial characterization of the CRH intron (CRHin) probe revealed specific localization of signal to the nuclear compartment of neurons in the medial(More)