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INTRODUCTION Spontaneous electromyographic (EMG) activity in the soleus muscle of the rat varies with the changing gravitational force in parabolic flight, presumably in an appropriate way to resist the load. We investigated how decreased and increased gravitational force affects EMG in human back and arm muscles and to what extent the motor cortex is(More)
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY Limited information exists about the physiological changes and clinical problems that occur in elite horses competing in high-speed 160 km endurance races. OBJECTIVES To provide initial data describing changes in physiological and laboratory measurements in horses competing in a high-speed, 160 km endurance race under temperate(More)
In this paper we present the mathematical details of the diameter-based reconstruction technique used in the companion paper (Phillips et al., 1994 - referred to below as Part I) to analyse the morphometric data of Raabe et al. (1976) on the human bronchial tree. In the first section we outline the technique as applied to the incomplete set of measurements(More)
A physical model for small airway closure is developed, based on the assumption that closure occurs as a result of a surface tension-induced instability of the thin liquid film lining the airways. To distinguish this mechanism from others involving airway compliance, experiments were performed in rigid tubes, 1 mm in diameter, with length-to-diameter ratios(More)
A model for the mechanical properties of an alveolar duct is analyzed using the finite element method. Its geometry comprises an assemblage of truncated octahedral alveoli surrounding a longitudinal air duct. The amounts and distributions of elastin and collagen fiber bundles, modeled by separate stress-strain laws, are based upon published data for dogs.(More)