Robert C Santore

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The biotic ligand model (BLM) of acute metal toxicity to aquatic organisms is based on the idea that mortality occurs when the metal-biotic ligand complex reaches a critical concentration. For fish, the biotic ligand is either known or suspected to be the sodium or calcium channel proteins in the gill surface that regulate the ionic composition of the(More)
During recent years, the biotic ligand model (BLM) has been proposed as a tool to evaluate quantitatively the manner in which water chemistry affects the speciation and biological availability of metals in aquatic systems. This is an important consideration because it is the bioavailability and bioreactivity of metals that control their potential to cause(More)
Chemical speciation controls the bioavailability and toxicity of metals in aquatic systems and regulatory agencies are recognizing this as they develop updated water quality criteria (WQC) for metals. The factors that affect bioavailability may be quantitatively evaluated with the biotic ligand model (BLM). Within the context of the BLM framework, the(More)
The Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) has proven efficient in predicting the toxicity of a variety of metals to freshwater organisms. Consequently, the US EPA has proposed its use for calculating freshwater copper criteria. This study evaluates the BLM for use in estuarine and marine waters. Studies were conducted using the bivalve, Mytilus sp. and 48-h(More)
The Biotic Ligand Model has been previously developed to explain and predict the effects of water chemistry on the toxicity of copper, silver, and cadmium. In this paper, we describe the development and application of a biotic ligand model for zinc (Zn BLM). The data used in the development of the Zn BLM includes acute zinc LC50 data for several aquatic(More)
An extension of the simultaneously extracted metals/acid-volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) procedure is presented that predicts the acute and chronic sediment metals effects concentrations. A biotic ligand model (BLM) and a pore water-sediment partitioning model are used to predict the sediment concentration that is in equilibrium with the biotic ligand effects(More)
The biotic ligand model (BLM) was developed to explain and predict the effects of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of metals to aquatic organisms. The biotic ligand is defined as a specific receptor within an organism where metal complexation leads to acute toxicity. The BLM is designed to predict metal interactions at the biotic ligand within the(More)
The mitigating effect of increasing hardness on metal toxicity is reflected in water quality criteria in the United States over the range of 25-400 mgl(-1) (as CaCO(3)). However, waters in the arid west of the US frequently exceed 400 mgl(-1) hardness, and the applicability of hardness-toxicity relationships in these waters is unknown. Acute toxicity tests(More)
An important final step in development of an acute biotic ligand model for silver is to validate predictive capabilities of the biotic ligand model developed for fish and invertebrates. To accomplish this, eight natural waters, collected from across North America, were characterized with respect to ionic composition, pH, dissolved organic carbon, and(More)
Sintered tungsten-bronze is a new substitute for lead shot, and is about to be deposited in and around the wetlands of North America. This material contains copper in the alloyed form of bronze. This in vitro study was performed according to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria to determine the dissolution rate of copper from the shot, and to assess the(More)