Robert C. Millikan

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CONTEXT Gene expression analysis has identified several breast cancer subtypes, including basal-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive/estrogen receptor negative (HER2+/ER-), luminal A, and luminal B. OBJECTIVES To determine population-based distributions and clinical associations for breast cancer subtypes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND(More)
Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to(More)
We examined the role of constitutional genetic variation at the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 locus in breast cancer susceptibility. The UGT1A1 enzyme is a major UGT involved in estradiol glucuronidation. To date, four UGT1A1 variant alleles characterized by a variation in the number of TA from five through eight repeats in the atypical TATA box(More)
Mitochondria generate oxygen-derived free radicals that damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as well as nuclear DNA and in turn promote carcinogenesis. The mtDNA G10398A polymorphism alters the structure of Complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, an important site of free radical production. This polymorphism is associated with several(More)
CONTEXT Previous studies of BRCA1 mutation prevalence have been based on high-risk groups, yielding estimates that do not reflect the experience of the general population of US patients with breast cancer. OBJECTIVE To determine prevalence of known disease-related mutations and other variants in BRCA1 and how it differs by race, age at diagnosis, and(More)
An epidemiologic study was conducted to determine whether polymorphisms in DNA repair genes modify the association between breast cancer risk and exposure to ionizing radiation. Self-reported exposure to ionizing radiation from medical sources was evaluated as part of a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer in African-American (894 cases and(More)
Microarray profiling of invasive breast carcinomas has identified subtypes including luminal A, luminal B, HER2-overexpressing, and basal-like. The poor-prognosis, basal-like tumors have been immunohistochemically characterized as estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, HER2/neu-negative, and cytokeratin 5/6-positive and/or epidermal growth factor receptor(More)
Twenty-nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from previously published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and multiple ancestry informative markers were genotyped in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) (742 African-American (AA) cases, 1230 White cases; 658 AA controls, 1118 White controls). In the entire study population, 9/10 SNPs in(More)
Waters adjacent to the County of Los Angeles (CA) receive untreated runoff from a series of storm drains year round. Many other coastal areas face a similar situation. To our knowledge, there has not been a large-scale epidemiologic study of persons who swim in marine waters subject to such runoff. We report here results of a cohort study conducted to(More)
We examined associations for glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1), T1 (GSTT1), and P1 (GSTP1) genotypes and breast cancer in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case-control study in North Carolina. Odds ratios were close to the null value for each GST locus among African-American women (278 cases and 271 controls) and white women (410(More)