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Behavioral studies have suggested that exaggerated reactivity to food cues, especially those associated with high-calorie foods, may be a factor underlying obesity. This increased motivational potency of foods in obese individuals appears to be mediated in part by a hyperactive reward system. We used a Philips 3T magnet and fMRI to investigate activation of(More)
Epileptic encephalopathies are a devastating group of severe childhood epilepsy disorders for which the cause is often unknown. Here we report a screen for de novo mutations in patients with two classical epileptic encephalopathies: infantile spasms (n = 149) and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (n = 115). We sequenced the exomes of 264 probands, and their parents,(More)
OBJECTIVE To gain information on the value of magnetic source imaging (MSI), 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to predict seizure-free outcome following epilepsy surgery in patients who require intracranial electroencephalography (ICEEG). METHODS This work(More)
OBJECTIVE To gain information on the predictive and prognostic value of magnetic source imaging (MSI), 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET), and ictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as compared with intracranial electroencephalography (ICEEG) localization in epilepsy surgery. METHODS This work was(More)
2-[18F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), ictal single-photon-emission computed tomography (ictal SPECT), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) represent three established functional imaging tests that offer unique information toward the localization of epilepsy for surgery evaluation and treatment. When these tests are combined(More)
BACKGROUND Studies have shown that individuals with schizophrenia suffer from memory impairments. In this study, we combined proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to clarify the neurobiology of memory deficits in schizophrenia. METHODS We used single-voxel MRS acquired in the left hippocampus and(More)
Magnetoencephalography (MEG)-also known as magnetic source imaging when combined with magnetic resonance imaging-has developed to the point that it has now entered routine clinical application. Epilepsy MEG studies show that it can accurately localize spike sources--both ictal and interictal--as compared to both direct (intracranial EEG) and indirect(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have produced controversial results concerning the correlation of hippocampal volume loss with increasing age. The goals in this study were: 1) to test whether levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, a neuron marker) change in the hippocampus during normal aging and 2) to determine the relationship between hippocampal NAA(More)
PURPOSE To determine the ictal-onset zone of musicogenic seizures by using intracranial EEG monitoring. METHODS Musicogenic seizures in three patients with medically intractable musicogenic epilepsy were first localized by using noninvasive methods including, in one patient, ictal magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The(More)
(1)H MRS imaging was obtained from 10 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy before and after surgery. After surgery, metabolic recovery in the contralateral hippocampus was detected. Preoperatively, reduced N-acetylaspartate (p < 0.04) increased after surgery nonsignificantly to equal control values. Cholines increased after surgery (p < 0.02) and(More)