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The strength of the connection between two neurons can be modified by activity, in a way that depends on the timing of neuronal firing on either side of the synapse. This spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) has been studied by systematically varying the intervals between pre- and postsynaptic spikes. Here we studied how STDP operates in the context of(More)
In the neocortex, each neuron receives thousands of synaptic inputs distributed across an extensive dendritic tree. Although postsynaptic processing of each input is known to depend on its dendritic location, it is unclear whether activity-dependent synaptic modification is also location-dependent. Here we report that both the magnitude and the temporal(More)
Long-term synaptic modification depends on the relative timing of individual pre- and postsynaptic spikes, but the rules governing the effects of multispike bursts remain to be fully understood. In particular, some studies suggest that the spike timing dependence of synaptic modification breaks down with high-frequency bursts. In this study, we(More)
The flow of activity in the cortical microcircuitry is poorly understood. We use calcium imaging to reconstruct, with millisecond and single-cell resolution, the spontaneous activity of populations of neurons in unstimulated slices from mouse visual cortex. We find spontaneous activity correlated among networks of layer 5 pyramidal cells. Synchronous(More)
Receptive fields of sensory cortical neurons are plastic, changing in response to alterations of neural activity or sensory experience. In this way, cortical representations of the sensory environment can incorporate new information about the world, depending on the relevance or value of particular stimuli. Neuromodulation is required for cortical(More)
Critical periods are times of pronounced brain plasticity. During a critical period in the postnatal development of the visual cortex, the occlusion of one eye triggers a rapid reorganization of neuronal responses, a process known as ocular dominance plasticity. We have shown that the transplantation of inhibitory neurons induces ocular dominance plasticity(More)
Early in life, neural circuits are highly susceptible to outside influences. The organization of the primary auditory cortex (A1) in particular is governed by acoustic experience during the critical period, an epoch near the beginning of postnatal development throughout which cortical synapses and networks are especially plastic. This neonatal sensitivity(More)
Synapses and receptive fields of the cerebral cortex are plastic. However, changes to specific inputs must be coordinated within neural networks to ensure that excitability and feature selectivity are appropriately configured for perception of the sensory environment. We induced long-lasting enhancements and decrements to excitatory synaptic strength in rat(More)
Spike timing-dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) plays an important role in neural development and information processing in the brain; however, the mechanism by which spike timing information is encoded into STDP remains unclear. Here, we show that a novel allosteric kinetics of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is required for STDP. We developed a detailed(More)
Cortical inhibitory circuits are formed by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-secreting interneurons, a cell population that originates far from the cerebral cortex in the embryonic ventral forebrain. Given their distant developmental origins, it is intriguing how the number of cortical interneurons is ultimately determined. One possibility, suggested by the(More)