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BACKGROUND Current perception is that participants of a structured weight-loss program regain all of their weight loss within 5 y. OBJECTIVE The objective was to examine the long-term weight-loss maintenance of individuals completing a structured weight-loss program. DESIGN Studies were required to 1) have been conducted in the United States, 2) have(More)
The regulation of body weight and composition involves input from genes and the environment, demonstrated, for example, by the variable susceptibility of inbred strains of mice to obesity when offered a high-fat diet. The identification of the gene responsible for obesity in the ob/ob mouse provides a new approach to defining links between diet and genetics(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus and heart failure frequently coexist. However, few diabetes mellitus trials have prospectively evaluated and adjudicated heart failure as an end point. METHODS AND RESULTS A total of 16 492 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a history of, or at risk of, cardiovascular events were randomized to saxagliptin or placebo(More)
Modafinil is indicated for the management of excessive daytime sleepiness; however, recent studies have examined a broad range of potential uses. Given that clinical uses of modafinil may be expanding, this study compared modafinil and d-amphetamine effects on subjective and performance measures. Across 11 sessions, 11 healthy adults were tested after oral(More)
AIM To assess the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin + metformin initial combination therapy compared with saxagliptin or metformin alone over 76 weeks (24-week short-term + 52-week long-term extension) in treatment-naÏve type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with inadequate glycaemic control. METHODS In this phase 3, parallel-group, double-blind,(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective was to assess the relative risk (RR) for cardiovascular (CV) events across all 8 randomized phase 2/3 trials evaluating saxagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS Cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, revascularization procedures, and cardiac ischemia) were reported by investigators(More)
Several inflammatory cytokines, most notably tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1, induce anorexia and loss of lean body mass, common manifestations of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. In C57BL/6 female mice, the administration of TNF, IL-1, and, to a lesser extent, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), produced a prompt and dose-dependent increase in(More)
The mutant gene responsible for obesity in the ob/ob mouse was recently identified by positional cloning (Zhang Y., R. Proenca, M. Maffel, M. Barone, L. Leopold, and J.M. Friedman. 1994. Nature (Lond.) 372:425). The encoded protein and to represent and "adipostat" signal reflecting the state of energy stores. We confirm that the adipocyte is the source of(More)
beta 3-Adrenergic receptors (beta 3-ARs) are expressed predominantly in white and brown adipose tissue, and beta 3-selective agonists are potential anti-obesity drugs. However, the role of beta 3-ARs in normal physiology is unknown. To address this issue, homologous recombination was used to generate mice that lack beta 3-ARs. This was accomplished by(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) demonstrate opposite actions on skin coloration in teleost fish. Both peptides are present in the mammalian brain, although their specific physiological roles remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the interactions between MCH and alpha-MSH after(More)