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Modafinil is indicated for the management of excessive daytime sleepiness; however, recent studies have examined a broad range of potential uses. Given that clinical uses of modafinil may be expanding, this study compared modafinil and d-amphetamine effects on subjective and performance measures. Across 11 sessions, 11 healthy adults were tested after oral(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus and heart failure frequently coexist. However, few diabetes mellitus trials have prospectively evaluated and adjudicated heart failure as an end point. METHODS AND RESULTS A total of 16 492 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a history of, or at risk of, cardiovascular events were randomized to saxagliptin or placebo(More)
The mutant gene responsible for obesity in the ob/ob mouse was recently identified by positional cloning (Zhang Y., R. Proenca, M. Maffel, M. Barone, L. Leopold, and J.M. Friedman. 1994. Nature (Lond.) 372:425). The encoded protein and to represent and "adipostat" signal reflecting the state of energy stores. We confirm that the adipocyte is the source of(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) demonstrate opposite actions on skin coloration in teleost fish. Both peptides are present in the mammalian brain, although their specific physiological roles remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the interactions between MCH and alpha-MSH after(More)
Several inflammatory cytokines, most notably tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1, induce anorexia and loss of lean body mass, common manifestations of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. In C57BL/6 female mice, the administration of TNF, IL-1, and, to a lesser extent, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), produced a prompt and dose-dependent increase in(More)
Despite efforts to achieve a desirable weight, two-thirds of the population has an elevated body weight. Medications are useful in supporting weight loss, but produce adverse effects. This study compared the effects of amphetamine and modafinil on food intake and cardiovascular activity in healthy men and women. Participants (n = 11) completed 11 sessions.(More)
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at high risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease; however, conclusive evidence that glycemic control leads to improved cardiovascular outcomes is lacking. Saxagliptin is a potent, selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor approved as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of saxagliptin monotherapy for up to 76 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and inadequate glycemic control, with main efficacy assessment at 24 weeks. METHODS 365 treatment-naïve patients with T2DM (HbA1c 7.0%-10.0%) were treated with saxagliptin 2.5 mg(More)
PURPOSE To assess safety and efficacy of saxagliptin in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PATIENTS AND METHODS This was a post hoc analysis of pooled data from older patients (≥65 years of age) from five 24-week phase III trials: three studies of saxagliptin versus placebo as an add-on therapy to metformin, glyburide, or a(More)
BACKGROUND It is important to establish the cardiovascular (CV) safety profile of novel antidiabetic drugs. METHODS Pooled analyses were performed of 20 randomized controlled studies (N = 9156) of saxagliptin as monotherapy or add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as a subset of 11 saxagliptin + metformin studies.(More)