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This review describes the sources, fate, and transport of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in the environment, with a specific focus on perfluorooctanoate (PFO). The global historical industry-wide emissions of total PFCAs from direct (manufacture, use, consumer products) and indirect (PFCA impurities and/or precursors) sources were estimated to be 3200-7300(More)
The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of [3-14C] 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8-2 FTOH, C7F1514CF2CH2CH2OH) following a single oral dose at 5 and 125 mg/kg in male and female rats have been determined. Following oral dosing, the maximum concentration of 8-2 FTOH in plasma occurred by 1 h postdose and cleared rapidly with a half-life of(More)
Perfluorinated acids, including perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), and perfluorinated sulfonates (PFASs), are environmentally persistent and have been detected in a variety of wildlife across the globe. The most commonly detected PFAS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), has been classified as a persistent and bioaccumulative substance. Similarities in(More)
There is increasing scientific interest to understand the environmental fate of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and fluorotelomer-based products which may break down to FTOHs. Both are expected to enter aqueous waste streams, which would be processed in a wastewater treatment plant and therein subject to microbial biodegradation. We investigated the(More)
The detection of perfluorinated organic compounds in the environment has generated interest in their biological fate. 8-2 Fluorotelomer alcohol (8-2 FTOH, C(7)F(15)CF(2)CH(2)CH(2)OH), a raw material used in the manufacture of fluorotelomer-based products, has been identified in the environment and has been implicated as a potential source for(More)
The mitotic spindle of L strain fibroblasts, fixed with glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, contains many 150- to 180-A tubules. They appear first in the cytoplasm. They extend from the centrospheres to the kinetochores, and from one centrosphere to the other. Only occasionally can points of continuity between the spindle tubules and the tubules of(More)
Smooth muscle cells derived from rat aortic media were established in subcultures and seeded from suspensions on smooth silicone rubber substrata in tissue culture flasks. Each flask contained two substrata, one stationary and one that was stretched and allowed to recoil at 15-s intervals. After 48 h or longer, the cells were fixed and their pattern on the(More)