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Isothermal titration calorimetry, ITC, has been used to determine the thermodynamics (DeltaG, DeltaH, and -TDeltaS) for binding netropsin to a number of DNA constructs. The DNA constructs included: six different 20-22mer hairpin forming sequences and an 8-mer DNA forming a duplex dimer. All DNA constructs had a single -AT-rich netropsin binding with one of(More)
Regulation of the structural equilibrium of G-quadruplex-forming sequences located in the promoter regions of oncogenes by the binding of small molecules has shown potential as a new avenue for cancer chemotherapy. In this study, microcalorimetry (isothermal titration calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry), electronic spectroscopy(More)
The factors that determine the conformation and stability of G-quadruplex forming sequences remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate the influence of cosolvents on the conformation and stability of the human telomeric sequence d(A(GGGTTA)3GGG)) in both K(+) and Na(+) containing solutions using a combination of circular dichroism, NMR, and(More)
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are widely used to perturb the conformations of nucleic acids, including G-quadruplexes. The mechanism by which PEG alters G-quadruplex conformation is poorly understood. We describe here studies designed to determine how PEG and other co-solutes affect the conformation of the human telomeric quadruplex. Osmotic stress studies(More)
G-quadruplexes (GQ) are formed by the association of guanine-rich stretches of DNA. Certain small molecules can influence kinetics and thermodynamics of this association. Understanding the mechanism of ligand-assisted GQ folding is necessary for the design of more efficient cancer therapeutics. The oligonucleotide d(TAGGG)(2) forms parallel bimolecular GQ(More)
Fluorescent reporter groups have served for many years as sensitive probes of macromolecular structure. Such probes can be especially useful in comparative studies such as detection of conformational changes and discrimination among structural models. Spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence are attractive because they are rapid, require small amounts of(More)
TMPyP4 (Mesotetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine) is known to have a high affinity for G-quadruplex DNA. However, there is still some controversy over the exact site(s) and mode(s) of TMPyP4 binding to G-quadruplex DNA. We examined TMPyP4 interactions with seven G-quadruplex forming oligonucleotides. The parent oligonucleotide is a 27-mer with a wild-type (WT)(More)
Studies performed in our laboratory demonstrated the formation of two thermodynamically distinct complexes on binding of netropsin to a number of hairpin-forming DNA sequences containing AATT-binding regions. These two complexes were proposed to differ only by a bridging water molecule between the drug and the DNA in the lower affinity complex. A(More)
Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a powerful technique that can be used to estimate a complete set of thermodynamic parameters (e.g., K(eq) (or ΔG), ΔH, ΔS, and n) for a ligand-binding interaction described by a thermodynamic model. Thermodynamic models are constructed by combining equilibrium constant, mass balance, and charge balance equations for(More)
Thermal denaturation profiles of several model oligonucleotides of the human telomere DNA sequence including d[A(GGGTTA)(3)GGG] (Tel22) were determined using circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence of adenine → 2-aminopurine analogs, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to monitor the unfolding process at specific locations within the quadruplex.(More)