Robert Bruce

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BACKGROUND Serum cystatin C was proposed as a potential replacement for serum creatinine in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation. We report the development and evaluation of GFR-estimating equations using serum cystatin C alone and serum cystatin C, serum creatinine, or both with demographic variables. STUDY DESIGN Test of diagnostic accuracy. (More)
  • Robert Bruce
  • Fundamental and applied toxicology : official…
  • 1985
An up-and down method for acute toxicity (LD50) testing has been developed and statistically evaluated. Compared with the "classical" procedure, this method permits a major reduction in the number of animals used. In the up-and-down procedure, animals are dosed one at a time. If an animal survives, the dose for the next animal is increased; if it dies, the(More)
BACKGROUND Opioid dependence and HIV/AIDS are 2 of the most serious yet treatable diseases worldwide. Global access to opioid agonist therapy and HIV treatment is expanding but when concurrently used, problematic pharmacokinetic drug interactions can occur. METHODS We reviewed English, Spanish, French, and Italian language articles from 1966 to 2005 in(More)
BACKGROUND Directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) is one approach to improve treatment adherence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected drug users. METHODS In this randomized, controlled trial ( identifier, NCT00367172), the biological outcomes of a 6-month community intervention of DAART were compared with those(More)
BACKGROUND Having opioid dependence and HIV infection are associated with poor HIV-related treatment outcomes. METHODS HIV-infected, opioid-dependent subjects (N = 295) recruited from 10 clinical sites initiated buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NX) and were assessed at baseline and quarterly for 12 months. Primary outcomes included receiving antiretroviral(More)
Injection drug use (IDU) plays a critical role in the HIV epidemic in several countries throughout the world. In these countries, injection drug users are at significant risk for both HIV and tuberculosis, and active IDU negatively impacts treatment access, adherence and retention. Comprehensive strategies are therefore needed to effectively deliver(More)
Despite its benefit for treating active tuberculosis, directly observed therapy (DOT) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been largely understudied among challenging inner city populations. Utilizing questionnaire data from a comprehensive mobile healthcare clinic in New Haven, CT from 2003 to July 2011, a total of 2,523 completed tuberculin skin(More)
Guinea pigs were exposed once a week for 10 weeks by intratracheal exposure to solutions of 3, 1, 0.3, or 0.1 micrograms of the enzyme protein, Subtilisn Carlsberg (Alcalase), in 250 micrograms of a detergent base. Other groups of guinea pigs were exposed by inhalation (6 hr per day, 4 days a week) to 1 mg/m3 of the aerosolized detergent base containing(More)
The reproducibility of toxicologic test methods, including alternative tests, is a key scientific and regulatory concern. In the present work, historic rabbit eye irritation data were used to determine the intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility of the low volume eye test (LVET). The standard Draize eye irritation test was used as the basis for(More)