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BACKGROUND Serum cystatin C was proposed as a potential replacement for serum creatinine in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation. We report the development and evaluation of GFR-estimating equations using serum cystatin C alone and serum cystatin C, serum creatinine, or both with demographic variables. STUDY DESIGN Test of diagnostic accuracy. (More)
BACKGROUND Directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) is one approach to improve treatment adherence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected drug users. METHODS In this randomized, controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00367172), the biological outcomes of a 6-month community intervention of DAART were compared with those(More)
Guinea pigs were exposed once a week for 10 weeks by intratracheal exposure to solutions of 3, 1, 0.3, or 0.1 micrograms of the enzyme protein, Subtilisn Carlsberg (Alcalase), in 250 micrograms of a detergent base. Other groups of guinea pigs were exposed by inhalation (6 hr per day, 4 days a week) to 1 mg/m3 of the aerosolized detergent base containing(More)
Directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) is one approach to improving adherence to among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected drug users. We evaluated the essential features of a community-based DAART intervention in a randomized, controlled trial of DAART versus self-administered therapy. Of the initial 72 subjects, 78% were racial(More)
Intravenous opioid use is a common route of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection; consequently, the prevalence of HCV is high among patients on methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone. The authors evaluated the pharmacokinetic interaction of boceprevir with methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone in patients on stable maintenance therapy. This was a two-center,(More)
BACKGROUND Having opioid dependence and HIV infection are associated with poor HIV-related treatment outcomes. METHODS HIV-infected, opioid-dependent subjects (N = 295) recruited from 10 clinical sites initiated buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NX) and were assessed at baseline and quarterly for 12 months. Primary outcomes included receiving antiretroviral(More)
HIV/AIDS and chemical dependency, the latter often intertwined with mental illness, are complex, overlapping spheres that adversely influence each other and the overall clinical outcomes of the affected individual. Each disorder individually impact tens of millions of people adversely, with explosive epidemics described worldwide. This article addresses the(More)
BACKGROUND Directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) is a promising intervention for improving HIV outcomes among active drug users, but the elements associated with successful DAART programs remain largely unknown. This study aimed to assess the impact of colocated medical, case management, and referral to substance abuse services (DAART-Plus)(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a prevalent chronic blood-borne infection among opioid-dependent patients on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Despite case reports and case-control studies, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) examining HCV treatment adherence in methadone-maintained patients is lacking and was the impetus for this ongoing RCT(More)