Robert Brent Stansfield

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Recent research has highlighted the fact that emotion that is intrinsic to a task benefits decision making. The authors tested the converse hypothesis, that unrelated emotion disrupts decision making. Participants played the Iowa Gambling Task, during which only experimental participants anticipated giving a public speech (A. Bechara, D. Tranel, & H.(More)
Physiological resonance between individuals is considered fundamental to the biological capacity for empathy. Observers of pain and distress commonly exhibit increases in reported distress, autonomic arousal, facial mimicry, and overlapping neural activity. An important, unstudied question is whether physiological stress can also resonate. Physiological(More)
BACKGROUND The Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) uses multiple, short-structured contacts to evaluate communication and professionalism. It predicts medical school success better than the traditional interview and application. Its acceptability and utility in emergency medicine (EM) residency selection are unknown. OBJECTIVE We theorized that participants(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that emotions are automatically processed. Even with subliminal presentations, subjects involuntarily mimic specific facial expressions, are influenced by the valence of a preceding emotion during judgments, and exhibit slowed responses to personally meaningful emotions; these effects are due to reflexive mimicry,(More)
OBJECTIVES Emergency medicine (EM) faculty often aim to improve resident performance by enhancing the quality and delivery of feedback. The acceptance and integration of external feedback is influenced by multiple factors. However, it is interpreted through the "lens" of the learner's own self-assessment. Ideally, following an educational activity with(More)
Psychological theories of human altruism suggest that helping results from an evolved tendency in caregiving mammals to respond to distress or need with empathy and sympathy. However, theories from biology, economics, and social psychology demonstrate that social animals also evolved to affiliate with and help desirable social partners. These models make(More)
BACKGROUND Physicians communicate with patients using electronic mail (e-mail) with increasing frequency. Communication skills specific to e-mail do not appear to be taught explicitly in medical school. Therefore, the effect of an instructive session on effective e-mail communication was examined. METHOD Four simulated e-mails from a parent were(More)
BACKGROUND Professionalism assessment has become necessary for all postgraduate training programs because it is now required for accreditation. To validate the novel items we generated to assess professionalism, we tested whether residents' ratings of faculty they judged as outstanding in professionalism would be distinguishable from those they judged as(More)
Neuroscientific research has consistently found that the perception of an affective state in another activates the observer's own neural substrates for the corresponding state, which is likely the neural mechanism for "true empathy." However, to date there has not been a brain-imaging investigation of so-called "cognitive empathy", whereby one "actively(More)
BACKGROUND The management of hemorrhage shock requires support of central aortic pressure including perfusion to the brain and heart as well as measures to control bleeding. Emerging endovascular techniques including resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta serve as potential lifesaving adjuncts in this setting. The Endovascular Skills for(More)