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The primary objective of this investigation was to develop a QSAR model to estimate the no effect level (NOEL) of chemicals in humans using data derived from pharmaceutical clinical trials and the MCASE software program. We believe that a NOEL model derived from human data provides a more specific estimate of the toxic dose threshold of chemicals in humans(More)
The FDA's Spontaneous Reporting System (SRS) database contains over 1.5 million adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports for 8620 drugs/biologics that are listed for 1191 Coding Symbols for Thesaurus of Adverse Reaction (COSTAR) terms of adverse effects. We have linked the trade names of the drugs to 1861 generic names and retrieved molecular structures for each(More)
A retrospective analysis of standard genetic toxicity (genetox) tests, reproductive and developmental toxicity (reprotox) studies, and rodent carcinogenicity bioassays (rcbioassay) was performed to identify the genetox and reprotox endpoints whose results best correlate with rcbioassay observations. A database of 7205 chemicals with genetox (n = 4961),(More)
This study examined a novel method to identify carcinogens that employed expanded data sets composed of in silico data pooled with actual experimental genetic toxicity (genetox) and reproductive and developmental toxicity (reprotox) data. We constructed 21 modules using the MC4PC program including 13 of 14 (11 genetox and 3 reprotox) tests that we found(More)
The Informatics and Computational Safety Analysis Staff at the US FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research has created a database of pharmaceutical adverse effects (AEs) linked to pharmaceutical chemical structures and estimated population exposures. The database is being used to develop quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for(More)
The sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction of mutagens with different mechanisms of action was comparatively investigated on permanent cell lines of the Chinese hamster (CHO, V-79, and DON) with and without exogenous metabolic activation and with the use of various experimental protocols. CHO and V-79 cells were treated with ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS),(More)
Estimating the maximum recommended starting dose (MRSD) of a pharmaceutical for phase I human clinical trials and the no observed effect level (NOEL) for non-pharmaceuticals is currently based exclusively on an extrapolation of the results of animal toxicity studies. This process is inexact and requires the results of toxicity studies in multiple species(More)
This report presents a comparison of the predictive performance of MC4PC and MDL-QSAR software as well as a method for combining the predictions from both programs to increase overall accuracy. The conclusions are based on 10 x 10% leave-many-out internal cross-validation studies using 1540 training set compounds with 2-year rodent carcinogenicity findings.(More)
ABSTRACT This report describes a coordinated use of four quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) programs and an expert knowledge base system to predict the occurrence and the mode of action of chemical carcinogenesis in rodents. QSAR models were based upon a weight-of-evidence paradigm of carcinogenic activity that was linked to chemical(More)