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We report the sequence and analysis of the 814-megabase genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a model for developmental and systems biology. The sequencing strategy combined whole-genome shotgun and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences. This use of BAC clones, aided by a pooling strategy, overcame difficulties associated with(More)
Widely spread chemicals used for human benefits may exert adverse effects on health or the environment, the identification of which are a major challenge. The early development of the sea urchin constitutes an appropriate model for the identification of undesirable cellular and molecular targets of pollutants. The widespread glyphosate-based pesticide(More)
Translational regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes can rapidly and accurately control cell activity in response to stimuli or when rapidly dividing. There is increasing evidence for a key role of the elongation step in this process. Elongation factor-1 (eEF1), which is responsible for aminoacyl-tRNA transfer on the ribosome, is comprised of two(More)
To assess human health risk from environmental chemicals, we have studied the effect on cell cycle regulation of the widely used glyphosate-containing pesticide Roundup. As a model system we have used sea urchin embryonic first divisions following fertilization, which are appropriate for the study of universal cell cycle regulation without interference with(More)
A glyphosate containing pesticide impedes at 10 mM glyphosate the G2/M transition as judged from analysis of the first cell cycle of sea urchin development. We show that formulated glyphosate prevented dephosphorylation of Tyr 15 of the cell cycle regulator CDK1/cyclin B in vivo, the end point target of the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint. Formulated glyphosate(More)
Cell-cycle dysregulation is a hallmark of tumor cells and human cancers. Failure in the cell-cycle checkpoints leads to genomic instability and subsequent development of cancers from the initial affected cell. A worldwide used product Roundup 3plus, based on glyphosate as the active herbicide, was suggested to be of human health concern since it induced(More)
We have cloned and sequenced a Xenopus cDNA referred to as EF-1 delta 2. The cDNA is homologous to EF-1 delta 1 encoding for EF-1 delta a protein of the guanine-nucleotide exchange complex of elongation factor-1 (EF-1). The protein sequence deduced from the cDNA, contains the two characteristic features of EF-1 delta protein, the leucine-zipper domain and(More)
Microinjection of cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (1.8 microM) increases the cAMP level of Xenopus oocyte. Its effect was observed in full-grown (stage VI) as well as in vitellogenic (stage IV) oocytes. In contrast the inhibitor I1 of protein phosphatase-1 blocks cAMP accumulation. Progesterone (1 microM) decreases the cAMP level in control and in(More)
Translation is now recognized as an important process in the regulation of gene expression. During the cell cycle, translation is tightly regulated. Protein synthesis is necessary for entry into and progression through mitosis and conversely, modifications of translational activity are observed during the cell cycle. This review focuses on translational(More)
94 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Programme identifies chemicals, drugs, mixtures, occupational exposures, lifestyles and personal habits, and physical and biological agents that cause cancer in humans and has evaluated about 1000 agents since 1971. Monographs are written by ad hoc Working Groups (WGs) of international(More)