Edwin Gilland8
Emre Aksay7
James C Beck6
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A recent theory holds that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) uses reinforcement learning signals conveyed by the midbrain dopamine system to facilitate flexible action selection. According to this position, the impact of reward prediction error signals on ACC modulates the amplitude of a component of the event-related brain potential called the(More)
In neural integrators, transient inputs are accumulated into persistent firing rates that are a neural correlate of short-term memory. Integrators often contain two opposing cell populations that increase and decrease sustained firing as a stored parameter value rises. A leading hypothesis for the mechanism of persistence is positive feedback through mutual(More)
We quantitatively studied the ontogeny of oculomotor behavior in larval fish as a foundation for studies linking oculomotor structure and function with genetics. Horizontal optokinetic and vestibuloocular reflexes (OKR and VOR, respectively) were measured in three different species (goldfish, zebrafish, and medaka) during the first month after hatching. For(More)
Persistent neural firing is of fundamental importance to working memory and other brain functions because it allows information to be held "online" following an input and to be integrated over time. Many models of persistent activity rely on some kind of positive feedback internal to the neural circuit concerned; however, too much feedback causes runaway(More)
The macroevolutionary events leading to neural innovations for social communication, such as vocalization, are essentially unexplored. Many fish vocalize during female courtship and territorial defense, as do amphibians, birds, and mammals. Here, we map the neural circuitry for vocalization in larval fish and show that the vocal network develops in a(More)
Persistent firing in response to a brief stimulus is a neural correlate of short-term memory in a variety of systems. In the oculomotor neural integrator, persistent firing that encodes eye position is maintained in response to transient saccadic eye-velocity commands. To a first approximation, firing rates in the integrator vary linearly with eye position.(More)
All vertebrates have a similar series of rhombomeric hindbrain segments within which cranial nerve efferent nuclei are distributed in a similar rostrocaudal sequence. The registration between these two morphological patterns is reviewed here to highlight the conserved vs. variable aspects of hindbrain organization contributing to diversification of efferent(More)
In the oculomotor system, temporal integration of velocity commands into position signals may depend on synaptic feedback among neurons of a bilateral brainstem cell assembly known as the "neural integrator." Both ipsilateral excitatory and contralateral inhibitory projections between eye position-related integrator cells are hypothesized as a substrate for(More)
traditional medical criteria of triage. Seattle appears to have been the only patient selection committee to evaluate prospective patients explicitly in terms of a utilitarian standard of "social worth"; it was the only committee to have become embroiled in public controversy.2 Thus the moral of the early dialysis crisis would seem to be that health(More)