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A recent theory holds that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) uses reinforcement learning signals conveyed by the midbrain dopamine system to facilitate flexible action selection. According to this position, the impact of reward prediction error signals on ACC modulates the amplitude of a component of the event-related brain potential called the(More)
OBJECTIVE The effects of olanzapine and divalproex for the treatment of mania were compared in a large randomized clinical trial. METHOD A 3-week, randomized, double-blind trial compared flexibly dosed olanzapine (5-20 mg/day) to divalproex (500-2500 mg/day in divided doses) for the treatment of patients hospitalized for acute bipolar manic or mixed(More)
OBJECTIVE Few double-blind trials have compared longer-term efficacy and safety of medications for bipolar disorder. The authors report a 47-week comparison of olanzapine and divalproex. METHOD This 47-week, randomized, double-blind study compared flexibly dosed olanzapine (5-20 mg/day) to divalproex (500-2500 mg/day) for manic or mixed episodes of(More)
The authors present a 10-item clinician-rated symptom rating scale for delirium. Compared to demented, schizophrenic, and normal control groups, 20 delirious subjects scored significantly higher on the scale, which quantitates multiple parameters affected by delirium. The scale can be used alone or in conjunction with an electroencephalogram and bedside(More)
OBJECTIVE In a placebo-controlled, double-blind study, the authors investigated the efficacy and safety of olanzapine as monotherapy in relapse prevention in bipolar I disorder. METHOD Patients achieving symptomatic remission from a manic or mixed episode of bipolar I disorder (Young Mania Rating Scale [YMRS] total score < or =12 and 21-item Hamilton(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the longer duration of the depressive phase in bipolar disorder and the frequent clinical use of antidepressants combined with antipsychotics or mood stabilizers, relatively few controlled studies have examined treatment strategies for bipolar depression. OBJECTIVE To examine the use of olanzapine and olanzapine-fluoxetine combination(More)
The reinforcing effects of methylphenidate (20-40 mg), d-amphetamine (10-20 mg), and placebo were assessed in eight healthy, non-sleep-deprived, non-drug-abusing outpatient volunteers. A modified progressive-ratio schedule was used to assess drug reinforcement in which a sampling session always preceded a self-administration session. During sampling(More)
BACKGROUND A 6-week double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of combined therapy with olanzapine and either valproate or lithium compared with valproate or lithium alone in treating acute manic or mixed bipolar episodes. METHODS The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of olanzapine (5-20 mg/d)(More)
BACKGROUND Few controlled studies have examined the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs for prevention of relapse in patients with bipolar I disorder. Aims To evaluate whether olanzapine plus either lithium or valproate reduces the rate of relapse, compared with lithium or valproate alone. METHOD Patients achieving syndromic remission after 6(More)
BACKGROUND This randomized controlled trial compares the efficacy and safety of olanzapine vs haloperidol, as well as the quality of life of patients taking these drugs, in patients with bipolar mania. METHODS The design consisted of 2 successive, 6-week, double-blind periods and compared flexible dosing of olanzapine (5-20 mg/d, n = 234) with haloperidol(More)