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Rat brain cDNA and genomic clones encoding three K+ channels, Kv1, Kv2, and Kv3, have been isolated by screening with Shaker probes and encode proteins of 602, 530, and 525 amino acids. Each of the deduced protein sequences contains six hydrophobic domains (including an S4-type region characteristic of many voltage-gated channels) and are 68%-72% identical(More)
We report here a characterization of two families of calcium-activated K(+) channel beta-subunits, beta2 and beta3, which are encoded by distinct genes that map to 3q26.2-27. A single beta2 family member and four alternatively spliced variants of beta3 were investigated. These subunits have predicted molecular masses of 27. 1-31.6 kDa, share approximately(More)
In an attempt to define the molecular basis of the functional diversity of K+ channels, we have isolated overlapping rat brain cDNAs that encoded a neuronal delayed rectifier K+ channel, K,4, that is structurally related to the Drosophila Shaw protein. Unlike previously characterized mammalian K+ channel genes, which each contain a single protein-coding(More)
Little is known about quality control of proteins that aberrantly or persistently engage the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized translocon en route to membrane localization or the secretory pathway. Hrd1 and Doa10, the primary ubiquitin ligases that function in ER-associated degradation (ERAD) in yeast, target distinct subsets of misfolded or otherwise(More)
Proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is often regulated, but the mechanisms underlying such regulation remain ill-defined. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell type is controlled by the MAT transcription factors. The alpha2 repressor is a known ubiquitin pathway substrate in alpha haploid cells. We show that a1 is rapidly degraded in a haploids. In(More)
Full-length cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) cDNAs were cloned into a new plasmid vector containing a modified plant virus promoter designed to transcribe the inserted sequence from its first nucleotide. cDNA copies of CMV strain Q (Q-CMV) genomic RNAs 1, 2 and 3 cloned into this vector were infectious when inoculated together, producing symptoms(More)
Xenopus oocytes express a gene encoding bovine rhodopsin as well as its SP6 RNA polymerase-derived transcripts and total retinal mRNA. The opsin produced is in unglycosylated (30 kDa) and two glycosylated (35 kDa and 41 kDa) forms. Incubation of the cells expressing the above proteins with 11-cis-retinal generates rhodopsin, which was purified by(More)
Voltage-gated K(+) currents play an important role in determining membrane potential, intracellular Ca(2+), and contraction in arterial smooth muscle. In this study, the expression of genes encoding voltage-gated K(+) channels of the Kv1.X family was compared in arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Expression of(More)
We have compared the slowly activating K+ currents (IsK) resulting from the expression of the human, mouse, or rat IsK proteins in Xenopus oocytes, utilizing natural, species-dependent sequence variations to initiate structure-function studies of this channel. Differences were found between the human and rodent currents in their voltage dependence,(More)