Robert B. Stewart

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The Indiana lines of selected rats, the HAD and LAD replicates and the P and NP lines, were bred for high and low alcohol preference. The P and HAD lines have met criteria for an animal model of alcoholism in that they voluntarily consume sufficient ethanol to achieve significant blood alcohol concentrations, and their alcohol-seeking behavior is reinforced(More)
BACKGROUND Neuropeptide Y (NPY) deficient mice consume more ethanol than controls, whereas NPY over-expressing mice consume less ethanol than controls. Thus, ethanol drinking may be inversely associated with NPY activity. To determine whether exogenously administered NPY would alter ethanol intake, two experiments were conducted. METHODS A within-subject(More)
Rats of the selectively bred alcohol-preferring P and alcohol-nonpreferring NP lines were evaluated using three different behavioral measures of anxiety. Compared with NP rats, P rats (1) showed greater footshock-induced suppression of operant responding in an approach-avoidance conflict test; (2) spent less time in the open arms of an elevated plus maze;(More)
To determine whether selective breeding for high or low oral ethanol consumption is associated with different preferences for nonpharmacological solutions with various flavors, the oral intake of a range of concentrations of sucrose (0.5-64.0 g/100 ml), NaCl (0.025-3.2 g/100 ml), citric acid (0.008-2.048 g/liter), and sucrose octaacetate (0.002-0.512(More)
 Food-deprivation increases the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine and other drugs within self-administration experiments. In this study, the effects of food-deprivation on cocaine-induced conditioned place preference were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of two feeding conditions: satiated (with ad libitum food) or deprived(More)
Oral benzodiazepine self-administration was examined in four adult male rhesus monkeys with histories of ethanol- and pentobarbital-reinforced behavior. Drug solutions and vehicle were concurrently available for 3-hr each day under fixed-ratio (FR) reinforcement schedules. Initially, the monkeys rejected a midazolam solution (0.1 mg/ml) after direct(More)
Initial sensitivity to alcohol and the development of alcohol tolerance were examined in rats of the selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and -nonpreferring (NP) lines. All rats received two alcohol injections (3.0 g/kg b.wt., IP) separated by either 1 or 2 days. P rats were less sensitive to the behaviorally impairing effects of alcohol than were NP(More)
BACKGROUND Research comparing the alcohol-preferring (P) and -nonpreferring (NP) rat lines has detected an apparent association between ethanol preference and lower responsivity to ethanol, as well as the capacity to develop and maintain tolerance to ethanol's effects. However, past studies of tolerance to ethanol's effects generally involved relatively(More)
The province of Ontario (Canada) reported more laboratory confirmed rabid animals than any other state or province in Canada or the USA from 1958-91, with the exception of 1960-62. More than 95% of those cases occurred in the southern 10% of Ontario (approximately 100,000 km2), the region with the highest human population density and greatest agricultural(More)
The effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on ethanol intake were examined in the selectively bred alcohol-preferring P line of rats under continuous and limited access to 10% (v/v) ethanol with food and water ad lib. Single daily injections of either MDL 72222 (MDL) or ICS 205-930 (ICS) (0.01-3.0 mg/kg, SC) given 60 min before a 4-h scheduled access period(More)