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Rigid body rotation of five domains and movements within their interfacial joints provide a rational context for understanding why HIV protease mutations that arise in drug resistant strains are often spatially removed from the drug or substrate binding sites. Domain motions associated with substrate binding in the retroviral HIV-1 and SIV proteases are(More)
The structure of an early M-intermediate of the wild-type bacteriorhodopsin photocycle formed by actinic illumination at 230 K has been determined by x-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.0 A. Three-dimensional crystals were trapped by illuminating with actinic light at 230 K, followed by quenching in liquid nitrogen. Amide I, amide II, and other(More)
Integration of retroviral DNA into the host cell genome requires the interaction of retroviral integrase (IN) protein with the outer ends of both viral long terminal repeats (LTRs) to remove two nucleotides from the 3' ends (3' processing) and to join the 3' ends to newly created 5' ends in target DNA (strand transfer). We have purified the IN protein of(More)
The ubiquitous class I basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor E47 forms heterodimers with multiple tissue specific class II bHLH proteins to regulate distinct differentiation pathways. In order to define how class I- class II heterodimer partners are selected, we determined the crystal structure of the E47-NeuroD1-bHLH dimer in complex with the insulin(More)
erh (enhancer of rudimentary homolog) is a ubiquitously expressed transcriptional coregulator that is highly conserved among eukaryotes, from humans to plants to protozoa. Functions attributed to erh include enhancement of pyrimidine biosynthesis, a role in cell cycle regulation, and repression of the tissue-specific transcription factor HNF-1 (hepatocyte(More)
Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) is a homeodomain transcription factor belonging to the ParaHox family. Pdx1 plays an essential role in pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cell development and maintenance of adult islet beta-cell function. Mutations in the human pdx1 gene are linked to an early onset form of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,(More)
Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) is a species that belongs to the Tombusviridae family of plant viruses with a T = 3 icosahedral capsid. RCNMV virions were purified and were crystallized for X-ray analysis using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Self-rotation functions and systematic absences identified the space group as I23, with two(More)
A variant of the simian immunodeficiency virus protease (SIV PR), covalently bound to the inhibitor 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane (EPNP), was crystallized. The structure of the inhibited complex was determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.4 A and refined to an R factor of 19%. The variant, SIV PR S4H, was shown to diminish the rate of(More)
The N-terminal dimerization domain of the transcriptional activator hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha) is essential for DNA binding and association of the transcriptional coactivator, DCoH (dimerization cofactor of HNF-1). To investigate the basis for dimerization of HNF-1 proteins, we determined the 1.2 A resolution X-ray crystal structure of(More)
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3) results from mutations in the transcriptional activator hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha). Several MODY3 mutations target the HNF-1alpha dimerization domain (HNF-p1), which binds the coactivator, dimerization cofactor of HNF-1 (DCoH). To define the mechanism of coactivator recognition and the(More)