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OBJECTIVE Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations have been reported in the plasma, CSF, and cortex of depressed subjects. Of interest is that ECT, one of the most effective treatments for severe refractory depression, produces considerable anticonvulsant effects that may be related to increased GABAergic transmission. The purpose of this(More)
Urinary free-cortisol levels (micrograms per day) were measured by radioimmunoassay at 2-week intervals during the course of hospitalization in the following patient groups: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); major depressive disorder; bipolar I, manic; paranoid schizophrenia; and undifferentiated schizophrenia. The mean cortisol level during(More)
OBJECTIVES Studies now provide strong evidence that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine possesses rapidly acting antidepressant properties. This study aimed to determine if a low dose of ketamine could be used to expedite and augment the antidepressant effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatments in patients experiencing a severe(More)
BACKGROUND At low doses, risperidone acts as a 5-HT2 antagonist. Preclinical data suggest 5-HT2 antagonists may enhance the action of serotonin. This report examines the clinical use of risperidone to augment selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) anti-depressants in patients who have not responded to SSRI therapy. METHOD In 8 patients with major(More)
Urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine levels (microgram/day) were measured at two-week intervals during the course of hospitalization in the following patient groups: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); major depressive disorder (MDD); bipolar I, manic (BP); paranoid schizophrenia (PS); and undifferentiated schizophrenia (US). The mean norepinephrine(More)
Are "generalized" seizures truly generalized? Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are classified as either secondarily generalized with local onset or primarily generalized, without known focal onset. In both types of generalized seizures widespread regions of the nervous system engage in abnormally synchronous and high-frequency neuronal firing. However,(More)
A review of theories of traumatic neurosis or posttraumatic stress disorder reveals a relative neglect of the role of posttraumatic imagery. The broad range of imagery has not been recognized, nor its role in the disorder adequately formulated. A two-dimensional framework for understanding posttraumatic stress disorder based on 1) repetitions of(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to explore the potential of providing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) after an index course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression to improve long-term outcome. METHOD The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale were used to assess depression and treatment outcome for 6(More)