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OBJECTIVE Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations have been reported in the plasma, CSF, and cortex of depressed subjects. Of interest is that ECT, one of the most effective treatments for severe refractory depression, produces considerable anticonvulsant effects that may be related to increased GABAergic transmission. The purpose of this(More)
BACKGROUND At low doses, risperidone acts as a 5-HT2 antagonist. Preclinical data suggest 5-HT2 antagonists may enhance the action of serotonin. This report examines the clinical use of risperidone to augment selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) anti-depressants in patients who have not responded to SSRI therapy. METHOD In 8 patients with major(More)
OBJECTIVES Studies now provide strong evidence that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine possesses rapidly acting antidepressant properties. This study aimed to determine if a low dose of ketamine could be used to expedite and augment the antidepressant effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatments in patients experiencing a severe(More)
Urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine levels (microgram/day) were measured at two-week intervals during the course of hospitalization in the following patient groups: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); major depressive disorder (MDD); bipolar I, manic (BP); paranoid schizophrenia (PS); and undifferentiated schizophrenia (US). The mean norepinephrine(More)
Are "generalized" seizures truly generalized? Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are classified as either secondarily generalized with local onset or primarily generalized, without known focal onset. In both types of generalized seizures widespread regions of the nervous system engage in abnormally synchronous and high-frequency neuronal firing. However,(More)
PURPOSE Regions of seizure onset and propagation in human generalized tonic-clonic seizures are not well understood. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-induced seizures provide a unique opportunity to investigate seizure onset and propagation under controlled(More)
Norepinephrine and epinephrine were measured serially in 24-hour urine collections from 99 male psychiatric inpatients with mixed diagnoses. The group was blindly divided into those with a previous history of at least one suicide attempt (N = 38) and those without such a history (N = 61). The ratio of norepinephrine-to-epinephrine levels was significantly(More)
A review of theories of traumatic neurosis or posttraumatic stress disorder reveals a relative neglect of the role of posttraumatic imagery. The broad range of imagery has not been recognized, nor its role in the disorder adequately formulated. A two-dimensional framework for understanding posttraumatic stress disorder based on 1) repetitions of(More)
The anatomical brain regions involved in the therapeutic and adverse actions of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are unknown. Previous studies suggest that bifrontal vs. bitemporal ECT differ in therapeutic efficacy and cognitive side effects. We therefore performed cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging during bitemporal vs. bifrontal ECT-induced seizures to(More)