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A novel imaging and software platform was developed for the high-throughput phenotyping of three-dimensional root traits during seedling development. To demonstrate the platform's capacity, plants of two rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes, Azucena and IR64, were grown in a transparent gellan gum system and imaged daily for 10 d. Rotational image sequences(More)
In 1994, Karl Sims' evolved virtual creatures showed the potential of evolutionary algorithms to produce natural, complex morphologies and behaviors [30]. One might assume that nearly 20 years of improvements in computational speed and evolutionary algorithms would produce far more impressive organisms, yet the creatures evolved in the field of artificial(More)
This paper introduces a novel technique for fabricating functional robots using 3D printers. Simultaneously depositing photopolymers and a non-curing liquid allows complex, pre-filled fluidic channels to be fabricated. This new printing capability enables complex hydraulically actuated robots and robotic components to be automatically built, with no(More)
Evolving controllers for multilegged robots in simulation is convenient and flexible, making it possible to prototype ideas rapidly. However, transferring the resulting controllers to physical robots is challenging because it is difficult to simulate real-world complexities with sufficient accuracy. This paper bridges this gap by utilizing the Evolution of(More)
Solid Freeform Fabrication is transitioning from an industrial process and research endeavor towards a ubiquitous technology in the lives of every designer and innovator. In order to speed this transition Fab@Home Model 3 was created with the goal of expanding the user base of SFF technology by lowering the skill and price barriers to entry while enabling(More)
As additive manufacturing of mechanical parts gains broad acceptance, efforts to embed electronic or electromechanical components in these parts are intensifying. We discuss recent work in printable electronics and introduce an alternative, which we call Bitblox. Bitblox are small, modular, interconnecting blocks that embed simple electromechanical(More)
Negative density-dependence is generally studied within a single trophic level, thereby neglecting its effect on higher trophic levels. The 'functional response' couples a predator's intake rate to prey density. Most widespread is a type II functional response, where intake rate increases asymptotically with prey density; this predicts the highest predator(More)