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We evaluated TLR function in primary human dendritic cells (DCs) from 104 young (age 21-30 y) and older (> or =65 y) individuals. We used multicolor flow cytometry and intracellular cytokine staining of myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and found substantial decreases in older compared with young individuals in TNF-alpha, IL-6, and/or IL-12(More)
BACKGROUND Innate immunity, including Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated expression of the B7 costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, is critical for vaccine immunity. We examined whether CD80 and CD86 expression vary with aging and predict response to the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. METHODS One hundred sixty-two subjects between 21 and 30(More)
BACKGROUND Universal vaccination of children 6 to 59 months of age with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine has recently been recommended by U.S. advisory bodies. To evaluate alternative vaccine approaches, we compared the safety and efficacy of intranasally administered live attenuated influenza vaccine with those of inactivated vaccine in infants and(More)
A recombinant human immunodeficiency virus 1 IIIB (HIV-1IIIB) gp120 subunit vaccine (IIIB-rgp120/HIV-1, Genentech) was tested for safety and immunogenicity in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase-I trial. HIV-1-seronegative adult volunteers received three 100 micrograms or 300 micrograms doses of IIIB-rgp120/HIV-1 in alum adjuvant (10(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza A H5N1 viruses pose a significant threat to human health. METHODS We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind study in 394 healthy adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 2 intramuscular doses of either saline placebo; influenza A/Vietnam/1203/2004(H5N1) vaccine alone at 45, 30, or 15 microg per dose; vaccine at 15(More)
A live-attenuated, intranasal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) candidate vaccine, cpts-248/404, was tested in phase 1 trials in 114 children, including 37 1-2-month-old infants-a target age for RSV vaccines. The cpts-248/404 vaccine was infectious at 104 and 105 plaque-forming units in RSV-naive children and was broadly immunogenic in children >6 months(More)
In the United States, two types of vaccines are recommended for the prevention of influenza: an intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) for eligible individuals aged 2-49 years and unadjuvanted injectable trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIV) for eligible individuals aged ≥ 6 months. Several recent studies have compared the efficacy of the 2(More)
Antiviral drug resistance for influenza therapies remains a concern due to the high prevalence of H1N1 2009 seasonal influenza isolates which display H274Y associated oseltamivir-resistance. Furthermore, the emergence of novel H1N1 raises the potential that additional reassortments can occur, resulting in drug resistant virus. Thus, additional antiviral(More)
The 1918 influenza A virus caused the most devastating pandemic, killing approximately 50 million people worldwide. Immunization with 1918-like and classical swine H1N1 virus vaccines results in cross-protective antibodies against the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza, indicating antigenic similarities among these viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that(More)