Robert Ayres

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BACKGROUND The appropriate medical treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis is determined largely by the severity of symptoms. Hospital assessment of the severity of disease activity includes investigation of laboratory indices and sigmoidoscopic assessment of mucosal inflammation. AIMS To develop a simplified clinical colitis activity index to aid(More)
The leucocyte adhesion molecule intercellular adhesion molecule-1 is induced on bile ducts in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis and may be involved in targeting immune damage to these structures. It has recently been reported that, when activated, in vitro lymphocytes release a soluble form of intercellular adhesion(More)
Human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells were isolated from the livers of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and from normal livers and established in primary culture. The in vitro expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, HLA class I, and HLA class II on biliary epithelial cells was studied in response to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (0-500(More)
In previous studies, intrahepatic human biliary epithelial cells (BEC) were isolated in high purity. However, these cells demonstrated only limited growth responses. Here we report that human BEC proliferate in response to human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF), retain BEC-specific phenotype, and can be serially passaged. BEC showed dose-dependent growth in(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the changing distribution of disease within the large bowel in patients presenting with ulcerative proctitis or proctosigmoiditis. To evaluate the influence of clinical exacerbations, smoking, parity and family history in disease extension. DESIGN Retrospective single-centre study in a university hospital. METHODS Case records of(More)
This report briefly describes robot technology and goes into more depth about where robots are used, and some of the anticipated social and economic impacts of their use. A number of short term transitional issues, including problems of potential displacement, are discussed. The ways in which robots may impact the economics of batch production are(More)
Patterns of oesophageal motility were recorded in 17 healthy volunteers and 12 patients with the irritable bowel syndrome. Recordings were taken at rest and under stress by hyperventilation, a dichotic hearing challenge and a cold pressor test. In healthy volunteers the dichotic hearing challenge was associated with a significant increase in the mean(More)
A non-operative method of palliation in malignant obstructive jaundice was used in 14 patients in whom a biliary stent could not be placed endoscopically. A guide wire was manipulated through the obstructing lesion through the percutaneous transhepatic route and retrieved through an endoscope. The stent was then fed through the endoscope over the guide wire(More)
BACKGROUND Helicobacter pylori eradication for peptic ulcer has been widely taken up. Evidence for the efficacy of different regimens is often derived from small series in clinical trials but there is little reporting of everyday practice with unselected patients. Freedom from ulcer relapse has been demonstrated, but not whether this equates with clinical(More)