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Hippocampal neurons exhibit low-voltage-activated (LVA) and high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium currents. We characterized the LVA current by recording whole-cell Ca2+ currents from acutely isolated rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons in 2 mM Ca2+. Long depolarizing steps to -50 mV revealed two components to the LVA current: transient and sustained. The(More)
This paper compares the pricing of credit risk in the bond market and the fast-growing credit default swap (CDS) market. The empirical findings confirm the theoretical prediction that bond spreads and CDS spreads move together in the long run. Nevertheless, in the short run this relationship does not always hold. The deviation is largely due to different(More)
Working papers of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland are preliminary materials circulated to stimulate discussion and critical comment. The views stated herein are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland or of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ABSTRACT Risk-based capital (RBC) is an(More)
  • Ken Cavalluzzo, John Wolken, +6 authors Teri Yohn
  • 2002
for helpful discussion and Douglas Rohde for excellent research assistance. The views expressed herein are those of the authors. They do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Federal Reserve Board or its staff. ABSTRACT Using newly available data from the Federal Reserve, we examine the impact of personal wealth on small business loan turndowns across(More)
The opinions expressed in this paper are those of the author alone, and they do not necessarily represent the views of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. For their contributions to the SCF, the author is very grateful to and many others who have worked on the SCF project at the Federal Reserve; to Barry Johnson, Tom Petska, Fritz Scheuren(More)
1. Whole cell recordings and high-speed fluorescence imaging were used to investigate the contribution of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels to the resting Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. 2. Prolonged membrane hyperpolarization produced, in a voltage-dependent manner, sustained decreases in [Ca2+]i in the somatic and apical(More)
Institutions involved in lending, including mortgage lending, carefully assess credit risk, which is the possibility that borrowers will fail to pay their loan obligations as scheduled. The judgments of these institutions affect the incidence of delinquency and default, two important factors influencing profitability. To assess credit risk, lenders gather(More)
Information that credit-reporting agencies maintain on consumers' credit-related experiences plays a cen­ tral role in U.S. credit markets. Creditors consider such data a primary factor when they monitor the credit circumstances of current customers and evalu­ ate the creditworthiness of prospective borrowers. Analysts widely agree that the data enable(More)
The effects of 7-[[4-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)-methyl]-1-piperazinyl]methyl] -2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino] 4-(1-methylethyl)-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one (U-92032), a newly described Ca2+ channel blocker, on voltage-gated ionic currents were measured. Whole cell voltage-clamp records were obtained from acutely isolated CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons from 7- to(More)