Robert Anton Schoevers

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OBJECTIVES To systematically compare and pool the prevalence of frailty, including prefrailty, reported in community-dwelling older people overall and according to sex, age, and definition of frailty used. DESIGN Systematic review of the literature using the key words elderly, aged, frailty, prevalence, and epidemiology. SETTING Cross-sectional data(More)
BACKGROUND Depression may be a potential risk factor for subsequent cardiac death. The impact of depression on cardiac mortality has been suggested to depend on cardiac disease status, and to be stronger among cardiac patients. This study examined and compared the effect of depression on cardiac mortality in community-dwelling persons with and without(More)
BACKGROUND Although a number of studies have examined risk factors for anxiety and depression at a later age, there have been no systematic comparisons of risk profiles across studies. Knowledge on such risk profiles may further our understanding of both the etiology and early recognition of these highly prevalent disorders. This paper gives a comprehensive(More)
OBJECTIVE Reviews of urban-rural differences in psychiatric disorders conclude that urban rates may be marginally higher and, specifically, somewhat higher for depression. However, pooled results are not available. METHOD A meta-analysis of urban-rural differences in prevalence was conducted on data taken from 20 population survey studies published since(More)
CONTEXT Substance use disorders (SUD) are a major public health problem. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a comorbid condition associated with both onset and prognosis of SUD. Prevalence estimates of ADHD in SUD vary significantly. OBJECTIVE To obtain a best estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in SUD populations. DATA SOURCES A(More)
BACKGROUND Associations between physical health and depression are consistent across cultures among adults up to 65 years of age. In later life, the impact of physical health on depression is much more substantial and may depend on sociocultural factors. AIMS To examine cross-national differences in the association between physical health and depressive(More)
BACKGROUND Depression in the elderly was found to be associated with a variety of risk-factors in cross sectional designs. Based on the vulnerability-stress model, etiologic pathways for depression have been suggested, with vulnerability modifying the effect of stress factors. The current prospective study tests an etiologic model for depression incidence,(More)
BACKGROUND According to current classification systems, patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) may have very different combinations of symptoms. This symptomatic diversity hinders the progress of research into the causal mechanisms and treatment allocation. Theoretically founded subtypes of depression such as atypical, psychotic, and melancholic(More)
Scarce evidence suggests that inflammatory and metabolic dysregulation predicts poor response to antidepressants, which could result in worse depression outcome. This study prospectively examined whether inflammatory and metabolic dysregulation predicted the 2-year course of depressive disorders among antidepressant users. Data were from the Netherlands(More)
BACKGROUND This study examines whether risk factors related to incidence of depression are also related to prognosis, and whether a vulnerability-stress model can be established for prognosis. METHODS A prospective model for prognosis of depression (chronic or remitted course) in later life was studied in 236 depressed community-living elderly. Subjects(More)