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Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling, which regulates multiple cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation, plays an important but incompletely understood role in normal and cancerous tissues. For instance, although TGF-beta functions as a tumor suppressor in the premalignant stages of tumorigenesis,(More)
LNCaP lineage-derived human prostate cancer cell lines C4-2 and C4-2B4 acquire androgen independence and osseous metastatic potential in vivo. Using C4-2 and C4-2B4 the goals of the current investigation were 1) to establish an ideal bone xenograft model for prostate cancer cells in intact athymic or SCID/bg mice using an intraosseous route of tumor cell(More)
BACKGROUND Clinically, the lethal phenotypes of human prostate cancer are characterized by their progression to androgen-independence and their propensity to form osseous metastases. We reported previously on the establishment of androgen-independent (AI) human prostate cancer cell lines derived from androgen-dependent (AD) LNCaP cells, with androgen(More)
Human prostate cancer has the propensity to metastasize to the bone where reciprocal cellular interactions between prostate cancer and bone cells are known to occur. Osteopontin (OPN), a noncollagenous bone extracellular matrix, is a secreted adhesive glycoprotein with a functional RGD cell-binding domain that interacts with the alpha(v)beta3 cell surface(More)
The neuroendocrine status of prostatic adenocarcinomas is considered a prognostic indicator for development of aggressive, androgen-independent disease. Neuroendocrine-like cells are thought to function by providing growth and survival signals to surrounding tumor cells, particularly following androgen ablation therapy. To test this hypothesis directly,(More)
BACKGROUND Nine transcription factors comprise the PAX gene family that regulate organogenesis. The urogenital system of PAX2 null male mice fails to develop properly. PAX2 is overexpressed in PC3 cells. Therefore, PAX2 is implicated in both prostate organogenesis and cancer. However, the expression pattern/profile of PAX2 in the prostate is unknown. (More)
BACKGROUND Suramin, a polysulfonated naphthylurea and a recognized antitrypanosomal agent, has shown some promise in phase II clinical trials in the management of hormone-refractory human prostate cancer. Reduction of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels has been proposed as an end point for evaluating the antitumor efficacy of treatments for(More)
Progression of prostate cancer ultimately results in a disease that is refractory to hormone ablation therapy but nevertheless continues to require the androgen receptor. Progression to hormone refractory disease is often correlated with overexpression of growth factors and receptors capable of establishing autocrine and/or paracrine growth-stimulatory(More)
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a kallikrein-like serine protease, which is almost exclusively synthesized in the luminal epithelial cells of the human prostate. PSA expression is androgen regulated. Previously, we characterized in vitro the proximal promoter, and a strong enhancer region, approximately 4 kb upstream of the PSA gene. Both regions are(More)
During prostate cancer progression, invasive glandular epithelial cells move out of the ductal-acinar architecture and through the surrounding basement membrane. Extracellular matrix proteins and associated soluble factors in the basal lamina and underlying stroma are known to be important regulators of prostate cell behaviors in both normal and malignant(More)