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BACKGROUND Despite strong circumstantial evidence that the pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia, inconsistent findings from relatively small in vivo TS imaging studies have supported contradictory conclusions concerning the role of abnormal anatomical characteristics of(More)
OBJECTIVE This is a review of progress made in the understanding of Tourette syndrome (TS) during the past decade including models of pathogenesis, state-of-the-art assessment techniques, and treatment. METHOD Computerized literature searches were conducted under the key words "Tourette syndrome," "Tourette disorder," and "tics." Only references from(More)
for their thoughtful review. These parameters were made available to the entire Academy membership for review in October 1997 and were approved by the AACAP Council in June 1998. They are available to AACAP members on the World Wide Web (www.aacap.org). ABSTRACT These practice parameters describe the assessment and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder(More)
The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease explained by all SNPs for two phenotypically-related(More)
BACKGROUND Femoral continuous peripheral nerve blocks (CPNBs) provide effective analgesia after TKA but have been associated with quadriceps weakness and delayed ambulation. A promising alternative is adductor canal CPNB that delivers a primarily sensory blockade; however, the differential effects of these two techniques on functional outcomes after TKA are(More)
IMPORTANCE Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, few studies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively few participants (<200), and none has examined the ages of highest risk for each TS-associated comorbidity or their etiologic relationship to TS. (More)
Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics--rapid, repetitive, stereotyped movements or vocalizations. Tourette syndrome typically has a prepubertal onset, and boys are more commonly affected than girls. Symptoms usually begin with transient bouts of simple motor tics. By age 10 years, most children are aware of(More)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently diagnosed in children with Tourette syndrome (TS). The basis for this co-occurrence is uncertain. This study aimed to determine if specific pre- and perinatal risk factors, including heavy maternal smoking and severe psychosocial stress during pregnancy, were associated with one or both(More)
BACKGROUND The hypothesis that common infections can modulate the onset and course of tic disorders and early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in pediatric populations is longstanding. To date, most investigations have focused on the hypothesis of molecular mimicry and humoral immune responses. This study was carried out to investigate whether(More)
OBJECTIVE An animal model was used to investigate an autoimmune etiology for some cases of Tourette's syndrome. METHOD Sera from 12 patients with Tourette's syndrome with high levels of antineural or antinuclear antibodies were infused bilaterally into the ventrolateral striatum of rats. Sera from 12 additional Tourette's syndrome patients and 12 normal(More)