Robert A. Lazarus

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The Met tyrosine kinase receptor and its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), play important roles in normal development and in tumor growth and metastasis. HGF-dependent signaling requires proteolysis from an inactive single-chain precursor into an active alpha/beta-heterodimer. We show that the serine protease-like HGF beta-chain alone binds Met, and(More)
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is crucial for many aspects of embryonic development, whereas dysregulation of this pathway is associated with several types of cancer. Hedgehog-interacting protein (Hhip) is a surface receptor antagonist that is equipotent against all three mammalian Hh homologs. The crystal structures of human HHIP alone and bound to Sonic hedgehog(More)
Binding of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) to the receptor tyrosine kinase MET is implicated in the malignant process of multiple cancers, making disruption of this interaction a promising therapeutic strategy. However, targeting MET with bivalent antibodies can mimic HGF agonism via receptor dimerization. To address this limitation, we have developed(More)
The purification, complete amino acid sequence, and biological activity are described for several homologous snake venom proteins that are platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa antagonists and potent inhibitors of platelet aggregation. The primary structures of kistrin (from Agkistrodon rhodostoma), bitan (from Bitis arietans), three isoforms of trigramin(More)
We report here that FcR for human monomeric IgG1 can be induced on cells of myeloid origin cultured in the presence of IFN gamma for 8 h. Supernatant fluids from cultures of lymphocytes infected with a variety of viruses or cocultured with cell lines have the same FcR enhancing effect as IFN gamma. We identify the factor in the supernatant fluid responsible(More)
Hedgehog (Hh) proteins are secreted signaling molecules that mediate essential tissue-patterning events during embryonic development and function in tissue homeostasis and regeneration throughout life. Hh signaling is regulated by multiple mechanisms, including covalent lipid modification of the Hh protein and interactions with multiple protein and glycan(More)
Proper hedgehog (Hh) signaling is crucial for embryogenesis and tissue regeneration. Dysregulation of this pathway is associated with several types of cancer. The monoclonal antibody 5E1 is a Hh pathway inhibitor that has been extensively used to elucidate vertebrate Hh biology due to its ability to block binding of the three mammalian Hh homologs to the(More)
The Hedgehog pathway drives proliferation and differentiation by activating the Gli/Ci family of zinc finger transcription factors. Gli/Ci proteins form Hedgehog signaling complexes with other signaling components, including the kinesin-like protein Costal-2, the serine-threonine kinase Fused, and Suppressor of Fused [Su(fu)]. In these complexes Gli/Ci(More)
Potent anticoagulants have been derived by targeting the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex with naive peptide libraries displayed on M13 phage. The peptides specifically block the activation of factor X with a median inhibitory concentration of 1 nM and selectively inhibit tissue-factor-dependent clotting. The peptides do not bind to the active site of(More)
A new metabolic pathway has been created in the microorganism Erwinia herbicola that gives it the ability to produce 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, an important intermediate in the synthesis of L-ascorbic acid. Initially, a Corynebacterium enzyme that could stereoselectively reduce 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid to 2-keto-L-gulonic acid was identified and purified. DNA(More)