Robert A. Kuschner

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BACKGROUND Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important cause of viral hepatitis. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of an HEV recombinant protein (rHEV) vaccine in a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS In Nepal, we studied 2000 healthy adults susceptible to HEV infection who were randomly assigned to receive three doses of(More)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae MS11mkA (mkA) expresses one 3.6-kDa lipooligosaccharide (LOS). Variant MS11mkC (mkC), expressing four larger LOSs, occurs in vitro among mkA at a frequency of 10(-3). Infectivity of these variants was compared in 2 groups of volunteers inoculated with approximately 40,000 piliated, Opa- gonococci of either strain. The mkC variant(More)
We evaluated the use of azithromycin (500 mg) or ciprofloxacin (500 mg) daily for 3 days for the treatment of acute diarrhea among United States military personnel in Thailand. Stool cultures were obtained and symptoms were recorded on study days 0, 1, 2, 3, and 10. Campylobacter species were the most common pathogen isolated (44 isolates from 42 patients).(More)
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious disease caused by the JE virus. New generation JE vaccines are needed to prevent this disease. We conducted this Phase 2 randomized, open label, unblinded, single center study of a new, cell-culture derived, purified inactivated virus (JE-PIV) vaccine. The JE-PIV vaccine was administered in either two or three(More)
Twenty-seven monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) recognizing the open reading frame 2 structural protein of the Pakistan strain of hepatitis E virus (HEV) were generated by conventional hybridoma technique. These Mabs were characterized by ELISA, affinity-capture reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (AC/RT-PCR), immune electron microscopy (IEM), and a(More)
Group C orthobunyaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus), discovered in the 1950s, are vector-borne human pathogens in the Americas. Currently there is a gap in genomic information for group C viruses. In this study, we obtained complete coding region sequences of reference strains of Caraparu (CARV), Oriboca (ORIV), Marituba (MTBV) and Madrid(More)
Inflammatory cytokine production in men was examined after intraurethral challenge of volunteers with Neisseria gonorrhoeae MS11mkA or MS11mkC. Increased interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were detected in urine before the onset of symptoms and peaked simultaneously with the detection of IL-1 beta at the onset of symptoms.(More)
Adenovirus (ADV) types 4 (ADV-4) and 7 (ADV-7) are presently the major cause of febrile acute respiratory disease (ARD) in U.S. military recruits. We conducted a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study of the new vaccine to assess its safety and efficacy. Healthy adults at two basic training sites were randomly assigned to(More)
BACKGROUND Sample storage conditions, extraction methods, PCR primers, and parameters are major factors that affect metagenomics analysis based on microbial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Most published studies were limited to the comparison of only one or two types of these factors. Systematic multi-factor explorations are needed to evaluate the conditions that(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether azithromycin, 250 mg/d, is effective prophylaxis for liver infection or for both liver and subsequent blood infection with Plasmodium falciparum. DESIGN Controlled phase II trial with two cohorts entered sequentially. SETTING Clinical trials center of Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C. PATIENTS Each(More)