Robert A. Kruger

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PURPOSE The authors report a noninvasive technique and instrumentation for visualizing vasculature in the breast in three dimensions without using either ionizing radiation or exogenous contrast agents, such as iodine or gadolinium. Vasculature is visualized by virtue of its high hemoglobin content compared to surrounding breast parenchyma. The technique is(More)
The theoretical underpinnings of photoacoustic ultrasound (PAUS) reconstruction tomography are presented. A formal relationship between PAUS signals and the heterogeneous distribution of optical absorption within the object being investigated is developed. Based on this theory, a reconstruction approach, analogous to that used in x-ray computed tomography,(More)
The authors performed thermoacoustic computed tomography (CT) with 434-MHz radio waves in five patients with documented breast cancer. Three of the patients underwent imaging before chemotherapy was initiated and two at the conclusion of their primary chemotherapy. In the former three patients, thermoacoustic CT demonstrated contrast enhancement in the(More)
PURPOSE To report the design and imaging methodology of a photoacoustic scanner dedicated to imaging hemoglobin distribution throughout a human breast. METHODS The authors developed a dedicated breast photoacoustic mammography (PAM) system using a spherical detector aperture based on our previous photoacoustic tomography scanner. The system uses 512(More)
We have constructed a thermoacoustic computed tomography scanner for imaging soft tissue in the human body. Thermoacoustic signals are induced in soft tissue by irradiation with 434 MHz rf energy. The thermoacoustic signals are detected by an array of transducers mounted on a hemispherical bowl. A three-dimensional, filtered backprojection algorithm is used(More)
Temporal filtration of fluoroscopic video sequences is being used as an alternative to pulsed digital subtraction angiography. Using the same image processing architecture and a slight modification in processing logic a parametric image can be synthesized from such a temporally filtered image sequence in virtual real time, i.e., an image sequence that spans(More)
A computerized fluoroscopy system which was recently developed in our laboratories permits image contrast increases of 8-16 relative to conventional image intensifer fluoroscopy and permits study of canine and human ventricular wall motion using peripheral intravenous injections. Two time-dependent image subtraction algorithms are illustrated in connection(More)
The authors evaluated images obtained with a prototypic thermoacoustic computed tomographic (CT) scanner constructed for use at 434 MHz, a promising radio frequency for detecting breast cancer. In one excised porcine kidney, acoustic energy emanating from the kidney was detected with transducers. The resultant electric signals were used to create a(More)
We report on methodology for employing a conventional linear transducer array as a thermoacoustic detector in a thermoacoustic computed tomography (TCT) device, which has been designed for imaging small animals, e.g., athymic nude mice. We tested this concept using a 5 MHz, 128-element linear array (Acuson model L538). Thermoacoustic emissions were induced(More)
Both digital subtraction and recursive filtering schemes have been employed successfully for intravenous and intraarterial arteriography. Either processing method results in an image(s), S, which is a linear combination of discrete images Ij acquired during the flow of iodinated contrast material, i.e., S = Sum of k(j)l(j) from j = 0 to N where k(j) are the(More)