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Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics--rapid, repetitive, stereotyped movements or vocalizations. Tourette syndrome typically has a prepubertal onset, and boys are more commonly affected than girls. Symptoms usually begin with transient bouts of simple motor tics. By age 10 years, most children are aware of(More)
This paper presents a review of vector quantization techniques used for encoding digital images. First the concept of vector quantization is introduced, then its application to digital images is explained. Spatial, predictive, transform, hybrid, binary, and subband vector quantizers are reviewed. The emphasis here is on the usefulness of the vector(More)
A 48-year-old man with severe, lifelong Tourette's syndrome (TS) characterized by forceful self-injurious motor tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder was treated with bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS). The decision to treat was based on his progressive neurological impairment (left sided weakness secondary to spinal cord injury) because of his(More)
The effectiveness of the theory of fuzzy sets in detecting different regional boundaries of X-ray images is demonstrated. The algorithm includes a prior enhancement of the contrast among the regions (having small change in gray levels) using the contrast intensification (INT) operation along with smoothing in the fuzzy property plane before detecting its(More)
BACKGROUND Despite strong circumstantial evidence that the pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia, inconsistent findings from relatively small in vivo TS imaging studies have supported contradictory conclusions concerning the role of abnormal anatomical characteristics of(More)
pointed out for an ideal error-free measurement system, the sensitivity of Bayes' rule in feature selection is sometimes quite low and hence should be treated carefully for the nonideal case also. Nevertheless, any strategy for feature selection should in­ clude a component with minimum average measurement error. Relaxation of the assumption that stage 1)(More)
A hierarchical three-stage syntactic recognition algorithm using context-free grammars is described for automatic identification of skeletal maturity from X-rays of hand and wrist. The primitives considered are dot, straight line and arcs of three different curvatures (including both senses) in order to describe and interpret the structural development of(More)