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Interleukin (IL)-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of a unique p19 subunit, and a common p40 subunit shared with IL-12. IL-12 is important for the development of T helper (Th)1 cells that are essential for host defense and tumor suppression. In contrast, IL-23 does not promote the development of interferon-gamma-producing Th1 cells, but is one of the(More)
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric molecule composed of p35 and p40 subunits. Analyses in vitro have defined IL-12 as an important factor for the differentiation of naive T cells into T-helper type 1 CD4+ lymphocytes secreting interferon-gamma (refs 1, 2). Similarly, numerous studies have concluded that IL-12 is essential for T-cell-dependent immune(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are ancient microbial pattern recognition receptors highly conserved from Drosophila to humans. To investigate if subsets of human dendritic cell precursors (pre-DC), including monocytes (pre-DC1), plasmacytoid DC precursors (pre-DC2), and CD11c(+) immature DCs (imDCs) are developed to recognize different microbes or microbial(More)
Interleukin (IL) 23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of a p19 subunit and the p40 subunit of IL-12. IL-23 affects memory T cell and inflammatory macrophage function through engagement of a novel receptor (IL-23R) on these cells. Recent analysis of the contribution of IL-12 and IL-23 to central nervous system autoimmune inflammation demonstrated that(More)
Chronic inflammation has long been associated with increased incidence of malignancy and similarities in the regulatory mechanisms have been suggested for more than a century. Infiltration of innate immune cells, elevated activities of matrix metalloproteases and increased angiogenesis and vasculature density are a few examples of the similarities between(More)
Aberrant cytokine expression has been proposed as an underlying cause of psoriasis, although it is unclear which cytokines play critical roles. Interleukin (IL)-23 is expressed in human psoriasis and may be a master regulator cytokine. Direct intradermal administration of IL-23 in mouse skin, but not IL-12, initiates a tumor necrosis factor-dependent, but(More)
Prostaglandins, particularly prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), play an important role during inflammation. This is exemplified by the clinical use of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors, which interfere with PGE2 synthesis, as effective antiinflammatory drugs. Here, we show that PGE2 directly promotes differentiation and proinflammatory functions of human and murine(More)
The FLT3/FLK2 receptor tyrosine kinase is closely related to two receptors, c-Kit and c-Fms, which function with their respective ligands, Kit ligand and macrophage colony-stimulating factor to control differentiation of haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells. FLT3/FLK2 is thought to be present on haematopoietic stem cells and found in brain, placenta(More)
The C-type lectin-like receptor CD161, which has recently been described to promote T cell expansion, is expressed on a discrete subset of human CD4 T cells. The function of such cells, however, has remained elusive. We now demonstrate that CD161(+) CD4 T cells comprise a circulating and gut-resident T helper 17 (Th17) cell population. During Crohn's(More)
The cytokine interleukin (IL) 25 has been implicated in the initiation of type 2 immunity by driving the expression of type 2 cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13, although its role in the regulation of immunity and infection-induced inflammation is unknown. Here, we identify a dual function for IL-25: first, in promoting type 2 cytokine-dependent immunity to(More)