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Interleukin (IL)-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of a unique p19 subunit, and a common p40 subunit shared with IL-12. IL-12 is important for the development of T helper (Th)1 cells that are essential for host defense and tumor suppression. In contrast, IL-23 does not promote the development of interferon-gamma-producing Th1 cells, but is one of the(More)
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric molecule composed of p35 and p40 subunits. Analyses in vitro have defined IL-12 as an important factor for the differentiation of naive T cells into T-helper type 1 CD4+ lymphocytes secreting interferon-gamma (refs 1, 2). Similarly, numerous studies have concluded that IL-12 is essential for T-cell-dependent immune(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are ancient microbial pattern recognition receptors highly conserved from Drosophila to humans. To investigate if subsets of human dendritic cell precursors (pre-DC), including monocytes (pre-DC1), plasmacytoid DC precursors (pre-DC2), and CD11c(+) immature DCs (imDCs) are developed to recognize different microbes or microbial(More)
Interleukin (IL) 23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of a p19 subunit and the p40 subunit of IL-12. IL-23 affects memory T cell and inflammatory macrophage function through engagement of a novel receptor (IL-23R) on these cells. Recent analysis of the contribution of IL-12 and IL-23 to central nervous system autoimmune inflammation demonstrated that(More)
Chronic inflammation has long been associated with increased incidence of malignancy and similarities in the regulatory mechanisms have been suggested for more than a century. Infiltration of innate immune cells, elevated activities of matrix metalloproteases and increased angiogenesis and vasculature density are a few examples of the similarities between(More)
Prostaglandins, particularly prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), play an important role during inflammation. This is exemplified by the clinical use of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors, which interfere with PGE2 synthesis, as effective antiinflammatory drugs. Here, we show that PGE2 directly promotes differentiation and proinflammatory functions of human and murine(More)
The FLT3/FLK2 receptor tyrosine kinase is closely related to two receptors, c-Kit and c-Fms, which function with their respective ligands, Kit ligand and macrophage colony-stimulating factor to control differentiation of haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells. FLT3/FLK2 is thought to be present on haematopoietic stem cells and found in brain, placenta(More)
The C-type lectin-like receptor CD161, which has recently been described to promote T cell expansion, is expressed on a discrete subset of human CD4 T cells. The function of such cells, however, has remained elusive. We now demonstrate that CD161(+) CD4 T cells comprise a circulating and gut-resident T helper 17 (Th17) cell population. During Crohn's(More)
The cytokine interleukin (IL) 25 has been implicated in the initiation of type 2 immunity by driving the expression of type 2 cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13, although its role in the regulation of immunity and infection-induced inflammation is unknown. Here, we identify a dual function for IL-25: first, in promoting type 2 cytokine-dependent immunity to(More)
CD4(+) T helper 2 (T(H)2) cells secrete interleukin (IL)4, IL5 and IL13, and are required for immunity to gastrointestinal helminth infections. However, T(H)2 cells also promote chronic inflammation associated with asthma and allergic disorders. The non-haematopoietic-cell-derived cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL33 and IL25 (also known as IL17E)(More)