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Cytokines of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, such as IL-1 alpha/beta and IL-18, have important functions in host defense, immune regulation, and inflammation. Insight into their biological functions has led to novel therapeutic approaches to treat human inflammatory diseases. Within the IL-1 family, IL-1 alpha/beta, IL-1Ra, and IL-18 have been matched to(More)
Interleukin (IL)-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of a unique p19 subunit, and a common p40 subunit shared with IL-12. IL-12 is important for the development of T helper (Th)1 cells that are essential for host defense and tumor suppression. In contrast, IL-23 does not promote the development of interferon-gamma-producing Th1 cells, but is one of the(More)
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric molecule composed of p35 and p40 subunits. Analyses in vitro have defined IL-12 as an important factor for the differentiation of naive T cells into T-helper type 1 CD4+ lymphocytes secreting interferon-gamma (refs 1, 2). Similarly, numerous studies have concluded that IL-12 is essential for T-cell-dependent immune(More)
A novel sequence discovered in a computational screen appears distantly related to the p35 subunit of IL-12. This factor, which we term p19, shows no biological activity by itself; instead, it combines with the p40 subunit of IL-12 to form a novel, biologically active, composite cytokine, which we term IL-23. Activated dendritic cells secrete detectable(More)
An efficient Th1-driven adaptive immune response requires activation of the T cell receptor and secretion of the T cell stimulatory cytokine IL-12 by activated antigen-presenting cells. IL-12 triggers Th1 polarization of naive CD4(+) T cells and secretion of IFN-gamma. We describe a new heterodimeric cytokine termed IL-27 that consists of EBI3, an(More)
T(H)-17 cells are a distinct lineage of proinflammatory T helper cells that are essential for autoimmune disease. In mice, commitment to the T(H)-17 lineage is dependent on transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Here we demonstrate that IL-23 and IL-1beta induced the development of human T(H)-17 cells expressing IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22,(More)
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and viral IL-10 (v-IL-10) strongly reduced antigen-specific proliferation of human T cells and CD4+ T cell clones when monocytes were used as antigen-presenting cells. In contrast, IL-10 and v-IL-10 did not affect the proliferative responses to antigens presented by autologous Epstein-Barr virus-lymphoblastoid cell line (EBV-LCL).(More)
Prostaglandins, particularly prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), play an important role during inflammation. This is exemplified by the clinical use of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors, which interfere with PGE2 synthesis, as effective antiinflammatory drugs. Here, we show that PGE2 directly promotes differentiation and proinflammatory functions of human and murine(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are ancient microbial pattern recognition receptors highly conserved from Drosophila to humans. To investigate if subsets of human dendritic cell precursors (pre-DC), including monocytes (pre-DC1), plasmacytoid DC precursors (pre-DC2), and CD11c(+) immature DCs (imDCs) are developed to recognize different microbes or microbial(More)
Whether epithelial cells play a role in triggering the immune cascade leading to T helper 2 (T(H)2)-type allergic inflammation is not known. We show here that human thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) potently activated CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) and induced production of the T(H)2-attracting chemokines TARC (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine;(More)