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We examined the distribution and ancestral relationships of genetic caste determination (GCD) in 46 populations of the seed-harvester ants Pogonomyrmex barbatus and P. rugosus across the east-to-west range of their distributions. Using a mtDNA sequence and two nuclear markers diagnostic for GCD, we distinguished three classes of population phenotypes: those(More)
We empirically characterize the mechanics of trade adjustment during the Argentine crisis using detailed firm-level customs data covering the universe of import transactions during 1996-2008. Our main findings are as follows: First, the extensive margin defined as the entry and exit of firms or of products (at the country level) plays a small role during(More)
1. Arginase is the focal enzyme of the urea cycle hydrolysing L-arginine to urea and L-ornithine. Emerging studies have identified arginase in the vasculature and have implicated this enzyme in the regulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and the development of vascular disease. 2. Arginase inhibits the production of NO via several potential mechanisms,(More)
Extracts from human Jurkat cells or from calf thymus contain a 60-kDa protein that is bound to immobilized FK506. As expected, the NH2-terminal sequences of the 60-kDa protein from these two species were found to be nearly the same. We were surprised to discover, however, that the sequence of the human protein was identical to that of Hsp56, a heat shock(More)
The chemical structure of prostaglandin X, the anti-aggregatory substance derived from prostaglandin endoperoxides, is 9-deoxy-6, 6alpha-epoxy-delta5-PGF1alpha. The stable compound formed when prostaglandin X undergoes a chemical transformation in biological systems in 6-keto-PGF1alpha. Prostaglandin X is stabilized in aqueous preparations by raising the pH(More)
Insects breathe through valved openings (spiracles) in their cuticle. Many insects open and close their spiracles in a cyclic pattern (discontinuous gas-exchange cycles, or DGC). These cycles were observed over half a century ago, their hypothesized function being to minimize loss of water from the tracheal system. However, numerous recent studies have(More)
The evolution of queens that rear their first brood solely using body reserves, i.e. fully claustral, is viewed as a major advance for higher ants because it eliminated the need for queens to leave the nest to forage. In an apparently unusual secondary modification, the seed-harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus displays obligate queen foraging, i.e.(More)
A well-established fact in international economics is that relative prices at the retail level across countries, expressed in a common currency, comove closely with the nominal exchange rate. Understanding why is central to answering some of the classic questions in international economics, ranging from the gains from market integration to the transmission(More)
Synthetic cathinones are components of "bath salts" and have physical and psychologic side effects, including hypertension, paranoia, and hallucinations. Here, we report interactions of 20 "bath salt" components with human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters [human dopamine transporter (hDAT), human serotonin transporter (hSERT), and human(More)
A Bayesian mixing model and stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen were used to evaluate the extent to which six consumers (three fishes, two zooplankton, and a snail) in a naturally productive lake used terrestrial resources, epilimnetic and metalimnetic phytoplankton, benthic algae, and macrophytes. Resource use varied with consumer habitat use(More)