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Understanding the molecular determinants of specificity in protein-protein interaction is an outstanding challenge of postgenome biology. The availability of large protein databases generated from sequences of hundreds of bacterial genomes enables various statistical approaches to this problem. In this context covariance-based methods have been used to(More)
Insulators are DNA sequences that control the interactions among genomic regulatory elements and act as chromatin boundaries. A thorough understanding of their location and function is necessary to address the complexities of metazoan gene regulation. We studied by ChIP-chip the genome-wide binding sites of 6 insulator-associated proteins-dCTCF, CP190,(More)
Hox genes encode a family of transcription factors that are key developmental regulators with a highly conserved role in specifying segmental diversity along the metazoan body axis. Although they have been shown to regulate a wide variety of downstream processes, direct transcriptional targets have been difficult to identify and this has been a major(More)
Knowledge of how species differ in their flammability characteristics is needed to develop more reliable lists of plants recommended for landscaping homes in the wildland–urban interface (WUI). As indicated by conflicting advice in such lists, such characterisation is not without difficulties and disagreements. The flammability of vegetation is often(More)
Many systems respond to slowly changing external conditions with crackling noise, created by avalanches or pulses with a broad range of sizes. Examples range from Barkhausen noise (BN) in magnets to earthquakes. In this Letter, we discuss the effects of increasing driving rate Omega on the scaling behavior of the avalanche size and duration distributions as(More)
C-1 carriers are essential cofactors in all domains of life, and in Archaea, these can be derivatives of tetrahydromethanopterin (H(4)-MPT) or tetrahydrofolate (H(4)-folate). Their synthesis requires 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin diphosphate (6-HMDP) as the precursor, but the nature of pathways that lead to its formation were unknown until the recent(More)
BACKGROUND The ability to perform de novo biosynthesis of purines is present in organisms in all three domains of life, reflecting the essentiality of these molecules to life. Although the pathway is quite similar in eukaryotes and bacteria, the archaeal pathway is more variable. A careful manual curation of genes in this pathway demonstrates the value of(More)
The Drosophila spermatogenesis cell differentiation pathway involves the activation of a large set of genes in primary spermatocytes. Most of these genes are activated by testis-specific TATA-binding protein associated factors (tTAFs). In the current model for the activation mechanism, Polycomb plays a key role silencing these genes in the germline(More)