Robert A. Gatenby

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If carcinogenesis occurs by somatic evolution, then common components of the cancer phenotype result from active selection and must, therefore, confer a significant growth advantage. A near-universal property of primary and metastatic cancers is upregulation of glycolysis, resulting in increased glucose consumption, which can be observed with clinical(More)
We present mathematical analyses, experimental data, and clinical observations which support our novel hypothesis that tumor-induced alteration of microenvironmental pH may provide a simple but complete mechanism for cancer invasion. A reaction-diffusion model describing the spatial distribution and temporal development of tumor tissue, normal tissue, and(More)
We propose that carcinogenesis requires tumour populations to surmount six distinct microenvironmental proliferation barriers that arise in the adaptive landscapes of normal and premalignant populations growing from epithelial surfaces. Somatic evolution of invasive cancer can then be viewed as a sequence of phenotypical adaptations to these barriers. The(More)
A hybrid cellular automaton model is described and used to simulate early tumor growth and examine the roles of host tissue vascular density and tumor metabolism in the ability of a small number of monoclonal transformed cells to develop into an invasive tumor. The model incorporates normal cells, tumor cells, necrotic or empty space, and a random network(More)
Environment-mediated drug resistance is a form of de novo drug resistance that protects tumour cells from the initial effects of diverse therapies. Surviving foci of residual disease can then develop complex and permanent acquired resistance in response to the selective pressure of therapy. Recent evidence indicates that environment-mediated drug resistance(More)
"Radiomics" refers to the extraction and analysis of large amounts of advanced quantitative imaging features with high throughput from medical images obtained with computed tomography, positron emission tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Importantly, these data are designed to be extracted from standard-of-care images, leading to a very large(More)
All malignant cancers, whether inherited or sporadic, are fundamentally governed by Darwinian dynamics. The process of carcinogenesis requires genetic instability and highly selective local microenvironments, the combination of which promotes somatic evolution. These microenvironmental forces, specifically hypoxia, acidosis and reactive oxygen species, are(More)
The acid-mediated tumor invasion hypothesis proposes altered glucose metabolism and increased glucose uptake, observed in the vast majority of clinical cancers by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, are critical for development of the invasive phenotype. In this model, increased acid production due to altered glucose metabolism serves as a key(More)
In this review we examine the mechanisms (causes) underlying the increased glucose consumption observed in tumors within a teleological context (consequences). In other words, we will ask not only "How do cancers have high glycolysis?" but also, "Why?" We believe that the insights gained from answering the latter question support the conclusion that(More)
Conceptual models of carcinogenesis typically consist of an evolutionary sequence of heritable changes in genes controlling proliferation, apoptosis, and senescence. We propose that these steps are necessary but not sufficient to produce invasive breast cancer because intraductal tumour growth is also constrained by hypoxia and acidosis that develop as(More)