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If carcinogenesis occurs by somatic evolution, then common components of the cancer phenotype result from active selection and must, therefore, confer a significant growth advantage. A near-universal property of primary and metastatic cancers is upregulation of glycolysis, resulting in increased glucose consumption, which can be observed with clinical(More)
We present mathematical analyses, experimental data, and clinical observations which support our novel hypothesis that tumor-induced alteration of microenvironmental pH may provide a simple but complete mechanism for cancer invasion. A reaction-diffusion model describing the spatial distribution and temporal development of tumor tissue, normal tissue, and(More)
We propose that carcinogenesis requires tumour populations to surmount six distinct microenvironmental proliferation barriers that arise in the adaptive landscapes of normal and premalignant populations growing from epithelial surfaces. Somatic evolution of invasive cancer can then be viewed as a sequence of phenotypical adaptations to these barriers. The(More)
All malignant cancers, whether inherited or sporadic, are fundamentally governed by Darwinian dynamics. The process of carcinogenesis requires genetic instability and highly selective local microenvironments, the combination of which promotes somatic evolution. These microenvironmental forces, specifically hypoxia, acidosis and reactive oxygen species, are(More)
The acid-mediated tumor invasion hypothesis proposes altered glucose metabolism and increased glucose uptake, observed in the vast majority of clinical cancers by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, are critical for development of the invasive phenotype. In this model, increased acid production due to altered glucose metabolism serves as a key(More)
A hybrid cellular automaton model is described and used to simulate early tumor growth and examine the roles of host tissue vascular density and tumor metabolism in the ability of a small number of monoclonal transformed cells to develop into an invasive tumor. The model incorporates normal cells, tumor cells, necrotic or empty space, and a random network(More)
Bone scans are highly sensitive for the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis, but the difficulty of separating bone-marrow processes from soft-tissue disease limits the specificity and accuracy. A diagnostic technique capable of distinguishing bone-marrow processes from soft-tissue disease would improve the diagnostic accuracy of osteomyelitis. To evaluate the(More)
"Radiomics" refers to the extraction and analysis of large amounts of advanced quantitative imaging features with high throughput from medical images obtained with computed tomography, positron emission tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Importantly, these data are designed to be extracted from standard-of-care images, leading to a very large(More)
The intracellular and extracellular dynamics that govern tumor growth and invasiveness in vivo remain poorly understood. Cell genotype and phenotype, and nutrient, oxygen, and growth factor concentrations are key variables. In previous work, using a reaction-diffusion mathematical model based on variables that directly describe tumor cell cycle and biology,(More)
The pH of solid tumors is acidic due to increased fermentative metabolism and poor perfusion. It has been hypothesized that acid pH promotes local invasive growth and metastasis. The hypothesis that acid mediates invasion proposes that H(+) diffuses from the proximal tumor microenvironment into adjacent normal tissues where it causes tissue remodeling that(More)