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Malignancies are characterized by mutations. We have hypothesized that the thousands of mutations in most human cancers do not result from the low mutation rates exhibited by normal human cells. Instead, cancer cells express a mutator phenotype (i.e., the mutation rate in the cancer cells is much greater than that in normal cells). We consider the following(More)
The recent development of the superlattice nanowire pattern transfer technique allows for the fabrication of arrays of nanowires at a diameter, pitch, aspect ratio, and regularity beyond competing approaches. Here, we report the fabrication of conducting Si nanowire arrays with wire widths and pitches of 10– 20 and 40– 50 nm, respectively, and resistivity(More)
The idea, originating in the early years of the 20th century, that each cancer is an independent somatic evolutionary process has been abundantly confirmed by modern molecular approaches (1–3). Genetic and epigenetic changes that increase the chance of outgrowth of the developing tumor are successively selected for. It has, however, often been argued that(More)
PURPOSE HER3 is a key dimerization partner for other HER family members, and its expression is associated with poor prognosis. This first-in-human study of U3-1287 (NCT00730470), a fully human anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody, evaluated its safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics in patients with advanced solid tumor. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN The study was(More)
Cancers are heterogeneous and genetically unstable. Current practice of personalized medicine tailors therapy to heterogeneity between cancers of the same organ type. However, it does not yet systematically address heterogeneity at the single-cell level within a single individual's cancer or the dynamic nature of cancer due to genetic and epigenetic change(More)
Tigatuzumab is the humanized version of the agonistic murine monoclonal antibody TRA-8 that binds to the death receptor 5 and induces apoptosis of human cancer cell lines via the caspase cascade. The combination of tigatuzumab and gemcitabine inhibits tumor growth in murine pancreatic xenografts. This phase 2 trial evaluated the efficacy of tigatuzumab(More)
PURPOSE Multiple cancers harbor genetic aberrations that impact AKT signaling. MK-2206 is a potent pan-AKT inhibitor with a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) previously established at 60 mg on alternate days (QOD). Due to a long half-life (60-80 hours), a weekly (QW) MK-2206 schedule was pursued to compare intermittent QW and continuous QOD dosing. (More)
BACKGROUND During early clinical development, prospective identification of a predictive biomarker and validation of an assay method may not always be feasible. Dichotomizing a continuous biomarker measure to classify responders also leads to challenges. We present a case study of a prospective-retrospective approach for a continuous biomarker identified(More)