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An American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference was held in Northbrook in August 1991 with the goal of agreeing on a set of definitions that could be applied to patients with sepsis and its sequelae. New definitions were offered for some terms, while others were discarded. Broad definitions of sepsis and the(More)
OBJECTIVE To further define the safety and efficacy of recombinant human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1ra) in the treatment of sepsis syndrome. STUDY DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational clinical trial. POPULATION A total of 893 patients with sepsis syndrome received an intravenous loading dose of(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop and implement an objective, reliable approach to surveillance for ventilator-associated events in adult patients. DESIGN The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) Surveillance Definition Working Group in September 2011. Working Group members included representatives of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and lipopolysaccharide are detectable in patients when they first present with the sepsis syndrome and to determine whether levels correlate with patient survival. DESIGN Prospective study comparing patients with the sepsis(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the therapeutic efficacy and safety of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1ra) in the treatment of patients with severe sepsis. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial with a planned, midstudy, interim analysis. SETTING Ninety-one academic medical center intensive(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody (TNF-alpha MAb) in the treatment of patients with sepsis syndrome. DESIGN Randomized, prospective, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. SETTING A total of 31 hospitals in the United States and Canada. PATIENTS There were 994(More)
BACKGROUND Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading infectious cause of hospitalization and death among U.S. adults. Incidence estimates of pneumonia confirmed radiographically and with the use of current laboratory diagnostic tests are needed. METHODS We conducted active population-based surveillance for community-acquired pneumonia requiring(More)
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to the presence of infection, mediated via the production of many cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF-), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1, which cause changes in the circulation and in the coagulation cascade. There is stagnation of blood flow and poor oxygenation, subclinical coagulopathy with elevated(More)