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The reengineering of legacy systems --- by which we mean those that have value and yet "significantly resist modification and evolution to meet new and constantly changing business requirements" --- is widely recognised as one of the most significant challenges facing software engineers. The problem is widespread, affecting all kinds of organisations;(More)
As hardware becomes faster and bandwidth greater, the determination of the performance of software based systems during design, known as Software Performance Engineering (SPE), is a growing concern. A recent seminar of experts at Dagstuhl and the First International Workshop on Software and Performance have both highlighted the need to bring performance(More)
Reoperation on the mitral valve is becoming more common because of the degeneration of bioprosthetic valves, endocarditis, and malfunction or thrombosis of mechanical valves. We advocate a technique that transforms a technically difficult operation into one that is much less tedious, time-consuming, and dangerous than reopening a sternal-split operative(More)
The hemodynamic effects of 2 plasma volume expanders were compared in postoperative open heart surgery patients. Albumin 5% (A) or hydroxyethyl starch 6% (HES) solutions were infused according to indications based on cardiac index (CI) and pulmonary wedge pressure (WP), and their effects evaluated by physiologic profile measurements. Both groups(More)
Software engineering has traditionally focussed on functional requirements and how to build software that has few bugs and can be easily maintained. Most design approaches include non-functional requirements among the elements of the analysis of a system, but little attention has usually been paid to how these requirements can be dealt with through the(More)