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BACKGROUND Existing severity assessment tools, such as the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65 (tool based on confusion, urea level, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age >or=65 years), predict 30-day mortality in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and have limited ability to predict which patients will require intensive respiratory or(More)
The efficacy of currently recommended treatments is uncertain in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI], 5-30). A group of 114 sleep clinic patients with an AHI of 5-30 have participated in a randomized controlled crossover trial of 3 months of treatment with each of nasal continuous positive airway pressure(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To compare apnea-hypopnea indices (AHIs) derived using 3 standard hypopnea definitions published by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM); and to examine the impact of hypopnea definition differences on the measured prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DESIGN Retrospective review of previously scored in-laboratory(More)
BACKGROUND Sleep hypoventilation has been proposed as a cause of progressive hypercapnic respiratory failure and death in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A study was undertaken to determine the effects of nocturnal non-invasive bi-level pressure support ventilation (NIV) on survival, lung function and quality of life in(More)
We assessed the capacity to predict surgical mortality, complications, and functional loss by using the results of resting and exercise respiratory function. Measurements were made before and 4 mo after lung resection in 54 consecutive patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. Predicted postoperative (ppo) FEV1 and DLCO were derived using quantitative lung(More)
Sleep-disordered breathing and excessive sleepiness may be more common in commercial vehicle drivers than in the general population. The relative importance of factors causing excessive sleepiness and accidents in this population remains unclear. We measured the prevalence of excessive sleepiness and sleep-disordered breathing and assessed accident risk(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the safety, availability, and long-term sequelae of percutaneous vs. surgical tracheostomy. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, controlled study. SETTING Combined medical/surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary referral hospital. PATIENTS Two hundred critically ill mechanically ventilated patients who required tracheostomy. (More)
A common clinical dilemma faced by sleep physicians is in deciding the level of severity at which patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) should be treated. There is particular uncertainty about the need for, and the effectiveness of, treatment in mild cases. To help define the role of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in mild(More)
Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with abnormalities in neuropsychologic function, and defects in respiratory control may contribute to pathogenesis. Abnormalities may be reflected in structural brain changes. Twenty-seven male untreated patients with severe sleep apnea without comorbidities, and 24 age-matched control subjects, had T1-weighted brain(More)
OBJECTIVES Sleep deprivation and alcohol both impair driving performance. This study assessed the interactive effect of low-dose alcohol and extended wakefulness. DESIGN Repeated-measures, crossover design evaluating psychomotor and driving function in a non-sleep-deprived state and after extended wakefulness with and without low-dose alcohol. SETTING(More)