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CONTEXT Autism is a heterogeneous disorder with genetic and environmental factors likely contributing to its origins. Examination of hazardous pollutants has suggested the importance of air toxics in the etiology of autism, yet little research has examined its association with local levels of air pollution using residence-specific exposure assignments. (More)
Acute organophosphate pesticide poisonings cause substantial morbidity and mortality world wide; however, whether organophosphates cause chronic neurological sequelae has not been established. To see whether single episodes of acute unintentional organophosphate intoxication lead to chronic neuropsychological dysfunction, we carried out a retrospective(More)
Results from studies of traffic and childhood asthma have been inconsistent, but there has been little systematic evaluation of susceptible subgroups. In this study, we examined the relationship of local traffic-related exposure and asthma and wheeze in southern California school children (5-7 years of age). Lifetime history of doctor-diagnosed asthma and(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about environmental causes and contributing factors for autism. Basic science and epidemiologic research suggest that oxidative stress and inflammation may play a role in disease development. Traffic-related air pollution, a common exposure with established effects on these pathways, contains substances found to have adverse(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise or time spent outdoors on the development of asthma. We investigated the relation between newly-diagnosed asthma and team sports in a cohort of children exposed to different concentrations and mixtures of air pollutants. METHODS 3535 children with no history of asthma(More)
BACKGROUND Whether local exposure to major roadways adversely affects lung-function growth during the period of rapid lung development that takes place between 10 and 18 years of age is unknown. This study investigated the association between residential exposure to traffic and 8-year lung-function growth. METHODS In this prospective study, 3677 children(More)
The association of air pollution with the prevalence of chronic lower respiratory tract symptoms among children with a history of asthma or related symptoms was examined in a cross-sectional study. Parents of a total of 3,676 fourth, seventh, and tenth graders from classrooms in 12 communities in Southern California completed questionnaires that(More)
BACKGROUND Although numerous epidemiologic studies now use models of intraurban exposure, there has been little systematic evaluation of the performance of different models. OBJECTIVES In this present article we proposed a modeling framework for assessing exposure model performance and the role of spatial autocorrelation in the estimation of health(More)
BACKGROUND Variations in air pollution exposure within a community may be associated with asthma prevalence. However, studies conducted to date have produced inconsistent results, possibly due to errors in measurement of the exposures. METHODS A standardized asthma survey was administered to children in grades one and eight in Hamilton, Canada, in 1994-95(More)
BACKGROUND Experimental data suggest that asthma exacerbation by ambient air pollutants is enhanced by exposure to endotoxin and allergens; however, there is little supporting epidemiologic evidence. METHODS We evaluated whether the association of exposure to air pollution with annual prevalence of chronic cough, phlegm production, or bronchitis was(More)