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We examine a model for the interaction of HIV with CD4+ T cells that considers four populations: uninfected T cells, latently infected T cells, actively infected T cells, and free virus. Using this model we show that many of the puzzling quantitative features of HIV infection can be explained simply. We also consider effects of AZT on viral growth and(More)
We fit a mathematical model to data characterizing the primary cellular immune response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. The data enumerate the specific CD8(+) T cell response to six MHC class I-restricted epitopes and the specific CD4(+) T cell responses to two MHC class II-restricted epitopes. The peak of the response occurs around day 8 for CD8(+)(More)
The specific CD8(+) T-cell response during acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of mice is characterized by a rapid proliferation phase, followed by a rapid death phase and long-term memory. In BALB/c mice the immunodominant and subdominant CD8(+) responses are directed against the NP118 and GP283 epitopes. These responses differ mainly(More)
Intracellular proteins are degraded largely by proteasomes. In cells stimulated with gamma interferon, the active proteasome subunits are replaced by "immuno" subunits that form immunoproteasomes. Phylogenetic analysis of the immunosubunits has revealed that they evolve faster than their constitutive counterparts. This suggests that the immunoproteasome has(More)
In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection, highly increased T-cell turnover was proposed to cause exhaustion of lymphocyte production and consequently development of AIDS. Here, we investigated cell proliferation, as measured by expression of the Ki-67 nuclear antigen, in peripheral blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocyte subpopulations before and during(More)
The present paper investigates conditions under which immunological memory can be maintained by stimulatory idiotypic network interactions. The paper was motivated by the work of (De Boer & Hogeweg, 1989b, Bull. math. Biol. 51, 381-408.) which claimed that idiotypic memory is not possible because of percolation within the network. Here we reinvestigate the(More)
We develop various mathematical models of the clinical latency stage of HIV-1 infection assuming that HIV-1 infection is limited either by the availability of cells that HIV can infect or by a specific anti-HIV cellular immune response. The former models we call "target-cell-limited". Comparing the models by phase plane analysis we find that they all belong(More)
Neutrophils are essential effector cells of the innate immune response and are indispensable for host defense. Apart from their antimicrobial functions, neutrophils inform and shape subsequent immunity. This immune modulatory functionality might however be considered limited because of their generally accepted short lifespan (< 1 day). In contrast to the(More)
It is widely believed that the gut, and particularly the lamina propria (LP) of the gut, contains most of the lymphocytes in humans. The strong depletion of CD4(+) T cells from the gut LP of HIV-infected patients was, therefore, suggested to be such a large, irreversible insult that it could explain HIV disease progression. However, reviewing data from(More)
The development of the immune repertoire during neonatal life involves a strong selection process among different clones. The immune system is genetically capable of producing a much more diverse set of lymphocyte receptors than are expressed in the actual repertoire. By means of a model we investigate the hypothesis that repertoire selection is carried out(More)