Learn More
Epigenetic reprogramming of myeloid cells, also known as trained immunity, confers nonspecific protection from secondary infections. Using histone modification profiles of human monocytes trained with the Candida albicans cell wall constituent β-glucan, together with a genome-wide transcriptome, we identified the induced expression of genes involved in(More)
TREM-1 is an important signaling receptor expressed on neutrophils and monocytes that plays an important role in systemic infections. Here, we review the intracellular signaling pathways that mediate the immunological effects of TREM-1. Because of the absence of signaling motifs, TREM-1 constitutively associates with DAP12 for induction of intracellular(More)
The acute phase of sepsis is characterized by a strong inflammatory reaction. At later stages in some patients, immunoparalysis may be encountered, which is associated with a poor outcome. By transcriptional and metabolic profiling of human patients with sepsis, we found that a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis was an important(More)
Epidemiologic studies suggest that VAS has long-lasting immunomodulatory effects. We hypothesized that ATRA inhibits inflammatory cytokines in a model of trained immunity in monocytes by inducing epigenetic reprogramming through histone modifications. We used an previously described in vitro model of trained immunity, in which adherent monocytes of healthy(More)
An increasing body of evidence shows that the innate immune system has adaptive characteristics that involve a heterologous memory of past insults. Both experimental models and proof-of-principle clinical trials show that innate immune cells, such as monocytes, macrophages, and NK cells, can provide protection against certain infections in vaccination(More)
BCG vaccination is associated with a reduced mortality from nonmycobacterial infections. This is likely to be mediated by a combination of innate-immune memory ("trained immunity") and heterologous effects on adaptive immunity. As such, BCG could be used to boost host immunity but not in immunocompromised hosts, as it is a live, attenuated vaccine.(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is associated with increased mortality. To prevent VAD, WHO recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) every 4-6 months for children aged between 6 months and 5 years of age in countries at risk of VAD. The policy is based on randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Recent(More)
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) is an activating receptor expressed on neutrophils and monocytes that amplifies inflammation induced by stimulation of pattern-recognition receptors. In this study, several lines of evidence are presented that TREM-1 interacts with the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) receptor complex, or is a component(More)
Induction of trained immunity (innate immune memory) is mediated by activation of immune and metabolic pathways that result in epigenetic rewiring of cellular functional programs. Through network-level integration of transcriptomics and metabolomics data, we identify glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and the cholesterol synthesis pathway as indispensable for the(More)
The innate immune system is considered to have no immune memory. However, lately there has been as shift in paradigm. Cells of the innate immune system, and especially monocytes and macrophages, are capable of building a nonspecific memory, resulting in either better or worse responses to secondary stimulations/infections, as a result of epigenetic changes.(More)