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PURPOSE To review the role of excitatory neurotransmitters in normal mammalian brain function, the concept of excitotoxic neuronal death as an important final common path in a variety of diseases, and modification of excitatory synaptic transmission as an important new pharmacological principle. These principles are discussed, with special emphasis on(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the clinical utility of blinking and the release reflexes, palmomental, glabellar, grasp, and snout, as an important part of the bedside neurological examination. DESIGN Articles published from 1966 to 1993 that addressed blinking or the release reflexes were identified by searching the MEDLINE database. Thirty-seven references(More)
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is gaining recognition as having an important anthropogenic impact on the environment, yet the behavioural and physiological impacts of this stressor are largely unknown. This dearth of information is particularly true for freshwater ecosystems, which are already heavily impacted by anthropogenic pressures. Atlantic salmon(More)
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