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Laboratory isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that utilize CXCR4 as a coreceptor infect primary human macrophages inefficiently even though these express a low but detectable level of cell surface CXCR4. In contrast, infection of primary macrophages by primary CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 isolates is readily detectable. Here, we provide evidence(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) generated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy individuals or from cancer patients transfected with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) mRNA stimulate a potent CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in vitro. DCs are effectively sensitized with RNA in the absence of reagents commonly used to facilitate mammalian cell(More)
OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the feasibility of inducing tumor antigen-specific immune responses in patients with metastatic cancer using total tumor RNA-loaded dendritic cells (DCs). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA The authors have shown that DCs transfected with mRNA encoding defined tumor antigens induce tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses in vitro and in(More)
BACKGROUND Many differentiating tissues contain progenitor cells that differ in their commitment states but cannot be readily distinguished or segregated. Molecular analysis is therefore restricted to mixed populations or cell lines which may also be heterogeneous, and the critical differences in gene expression that might determine divergent development(More)
The heat shock response is a highly conserved "stress response" mechanism used by cells to protect themselves from potentially damaging insults. It often involves the upregulated expression of chaperone and heat shock proteins (HSPs) to prevent damage and aggregation at the proteome level. Like most cancers, brain tumor cells often overexpress(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate preoperative dendritic cell (DC) mobilization and tumor infiltration after administration of Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) to patients with metastatic colon cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Twelve patients with colon cancer metastatic to the liver or lung received Flt3L (20 microg/kg/d subcutaneously for 14 days for one to three cycles at monthly(More)
Transformation products of pharmaceuticals formed by human metabolism within sewage treatment plant or receiving waters are predicted, in most cases, to be less toxic than the parent compound to common aquatic species. However, there is little available data to demonstrate whether this is generally the case. In the present study, a framework was developed(More)
Many factors have been considered in evaluations of the risk-benefit balance of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), used for treating menopausal symptoms in women, but not its potential risks for the environment We investigated the possible environmental health implications of conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs), the most common components of HRT, including(More)
Fish are an important model for the pharmacological and toxicological characterization of human pharmaceuticals in drug discovery, drug safety assessment and environmental toxicology. However, do fish respond to pharmaceuticals as humans do? To address this question, we provide a novel quantitative cross-species extrapolation approach (qCSE) based on the(More)
In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment;(More)