Rob A. Gruters

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Accumulating evidence indicates that cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) play an important role in the clearing of primary and control of chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Here, we discuss recent findings that indicate that the timing of target cell recognition critically contributes to CTL effectiveness. In this light several problems that(More)
BACKGROUND The hematocrit effect is a hurdle for successful introduction of the dried blood spot (DBS) in a regulated environment. Recently, attempts were taken to overcome the hematocrit effect by whole-cut DBS analysis. This paper presents the next-generation whole-cut DBS; dried matrix on paper disks (DMPD). RESULTS DMPD eliminated the hematocrit(More)
Almost five decades after their first application in diagnostics, dried blood spot (DBS) cards remain to be of key interest in many research areas and clinical applications. The advantages of sample stability during transport and storage, can now be combined with the high sensitivity of novel diagnostic techniques for the measurement and analysis of nucleic(More)
Recently we have shown that liposomes can be used as artificial microbes for the production and delivery of DNA-encoded antigens. These so-called antigen-expressing immunostimulatory liposomes (AnExILs) were superior in inducing antigen-specific antibodies compared to conventional liposomal protein or DNA vaccines when tested in mice after i.m.(More)
Kaletra (Abott Laboratories) is a co-formulated medication used in the treatment of HIV-1-infected children, and it contains the two antiretroviral protease inhibitor drugs lopinavir and ritonavir. We validated two new ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric assays to be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations(More)
BACKGROUND Undoubtedly, incurred sample reanalysis (ISR) will become an integral part of regulated bioanalysis of dried blood spot (DBS) samples. In this article, we report results from an ISR study on DBS specimen and their corresponding plasma samples. Incurred samples were reanalyzed on their concentration of the antiretroviral drug lopinavir (LPV). (More)
The limitations of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) have necessitated the development of alternative therapeutic strategies. One of the approaches that has gained prominence in recent years is therapeutic vaccination. We decided to assess the capacity of mature dendritic cells, derived from blood monocytes of HIV-1 infected patients, to(More)
The immune response against early regulatory proteins of simian- and human immunodeficiency virus (SIV, HIV) has been associated with a milder course of infection. Here, we directly compared vaccination with Tat/Rev versus Pol/Gag. Challenge infection with SIVmac32H (pJ5) suggested that vaccination with Tat/Rev induced cellular immune responses that enabled(More)
Recent studies indicate that the time required for virus-infected cells to become vulnerable for the activity of CTL is of significance for the capacity of CTL to control ongoing viral reproduction. To investigate whether this applies to the effectiveness of HIV-1-specific CTL, we measured virus production in cultures containing CD4(+) T cells inoculated(More)
Here we describe a flowcytometric assay that measures the defining function of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), i.e., killing viral protein expressing cells. The fluorescent antigen-transfected target cell (FATT)-CTL assay requires no viruses, recombinant viral vectors, or radioactive isotopes to generate CTL target cells that present naturally(More)