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Through a "tag-and-modify" protein chemical modification strategy, we site-selectively phosphorylated the activation loop of protein kinase p38α. Phosphorylation at natural (180) and unnatural (172) sites created two pure phospho-forms. p38α bearing only a single phosphocysteine (pCys) as a mimic of pThr at 180 was sufficient to switch the kinase to an(More)
Glycosylation patterns in antibodies critically determine biological and physical properties but their precise control is a significant challenge in biology and biotechnology. We describe herein the optimization of an endoglycosidase-catalyzed glycosylation of the best-selling biotherapeutic Herceptin, an anti-HER2 antibody. Precise MS analysis of the(More)
Transcriptional regulation can be established by various post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histone proteins in the nucleosome and by nucleobase modifications on chromosomal DNA. Functional consequences of histone O-GlcNAcylation (O-GlcNAc=O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine) are largely unexplored. Herein, we generate homogeneously GlcNAcylated histones(More)
The desire to study biology in situ has been aided by many imaging techniques. Among these, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping permits observation of elemental distributions in a multichannel manner. However, XRF imaging is underused, in part, because of the difficulty in interpreting maps without an underlying cellular 'blueprint'; this could be supplied(More)
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are stable protein cages derived from virus coats. They have been used extensively as biomolecular platforms, e.g., nanocarriers or vaccines, but a convenient in situ technique is lacking for tracking functional status. Here, we present a simple way to monitor disassembly of 19F-labeled VLPs derived from bacteriophage Qβ by 19F(More)
O-GlcNAcylation is a newly discovered histone modification implicated in transcriptional regulation, but no structural information on the physical effect of GlcNAcylation on chromatin exists. Here, we generate synthetic, pure GlcNAcylated histones and nucleosomes and reveal that GlcNAcylation can modulate structure through direct destabilization of H2A/H2B(More)
Posttranslational modification of proteins expands their structural and functional capabilities beyond those directly specified by the genetic code. However, the vast diversity of chemically plausible (including unnatural but functionally relevant) side chains is not readily accessible. We describe C (sp3)-C (sp3) bond-forming reactions on proteins under(More)
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