Ritha J. A. Njau

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In Zanzibar, the Ministry of Health and partners accelerated malaria control from September 2003 onwards. The impact of the scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), indoor-residual spraying (IRS) and artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) combined on malaria burden was assessed at six out of seven in-patient health facilities. Numbers of outpatient and(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to monitor the insecticide susceptibility status of malaria vectors in 12 sentinel districts of Tanzania. METHODS WHO standard methods were used to detect knock-down and mortality in the wild female Anopheles mosquitoes collected in sentinel districts. The WHO diagnostic doses of 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.05%(More)
Malaria is the largest cause of health services attendance, hospital admissions and child deaths in Tanzania. At the Abuja Summit in April 2000 Tanzania committed itself to protect 60% of its population at high risk of malaria by 2005. The country is, therefore, determined to ensure that sustainable malaria control using insecticide-treated nets is carried(More)
Field trials with mosquito coils containing 0.15% Esbiothrin at Usa River settlement, northern Tanzania, during 1986 achieved a 52% reduction in biting rates of Anopheles arabiensis Patton and a 73% reduction of Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquitoes. No mosquito biting activity occurred during the coil burning period which started at 20.00 hours daily and(More)
The efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) was assessed at Kivunge and Micheweni in Zanzibar, Tanzania, in 2001. The main objective was to obtain baseline data after observations of high levels of chloroquine treatment failures. Children (6-59 months) were randomized to receive either drug. At Kivunge, SP and AQ were given to 64 and(More)
Various definitions have been framed for public-private partnerships (PPPs) in health depending on the desired relationship and the characteristics of the respective sectors. These relationships span from a continuum of loose relationships with narrow objectives, lack of a legal status and an absence of a formalized membership or governing body to high(More)
Traditionally, it has taken decades to introduce new interventions in low-income countries. Several factors account for these delays, one of which is the absence of a framework to facilitate comprehensive understanding of policy process to inform policy makers and stimulate the decision-making process. In the case of the proposed introduction of malaria(More)
In the past decade there has been increasing visibility of malaria control efforts at the national and international levels. The factors that have enhanced this scenario are the availability of proven interventions such as artemisinin-based combination therapy, the wide scale use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and a renewed emphasis in indoor residual(More)
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