Ritchie O. Pragale

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Modern sodium chlorate or sodium hypochlorite-making processes (commonly known as “bleach”) take salt and water through an electrolytic process. The electrolytic process requires a significant amount of dc power. Bleach production plants, equipped with rectifiers, can generate potentially damaging harmonic currents if not mitigated or(More)
The value proposition for the installation of power factor (PF) correction (PFC) to avoid costly utility penalties is easily understood. The attractive payback of such PFC opportunities often pushes the project ahead without engineering considerations. In the case of medium-voltage PFC, lack of upfront engineering can lead to unexpected consequences in the(More)
Arc-flash hazard assessment studies involving a very large oil and gas company's equipment rated 38 kV and below revealed locations with excessive arcflash incident energy. After conducting many additional studies of power distribution systems for various plants (e.g., refineries, gas plants, gas-oil separation plants, and natural gas liquid plants), we(More)
An engineering team at a large oil and gas company was tasked to address the alarming trend of increasing capital expenditures required to manage its two main challenges: the obsolescence and aging of electrical equipment in over 1,000 electrical substations. It was forecasted that nearly US$1 billion will be required over the next ten years to replace the(More)
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