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When an object is presented binocularly at various distances in complete darkness the range of distances is usually underestimated. We found that adding a second object can reduce the extent to which the range of distances is underestimated. However this only happens if the second object is further than the one of which the distance is to be judged. We(More)
How do we know how far an object is? If an object's size is known, its retinal image size can be used to judge its distance. To some extent, the retinal image size of an unfamiliar object can also be used to judge its distance, because some object sizes are more likely than others. To examine whether assumptions about object size are used to judge distance,(More)
Retinal image size can be used to judge objects' distances because for any object one can assume that some sizes are more likely than others. It has been shown that an increased variability in the size of otherwise identical target objects over trials reduces the weight given to retinal image size as a distance cue. Here, we examined whether an increased(More)
When looking for a target with a different slant than all the other objects, the time needed is independent of the number of other objects. Surface slant can be inferred from the two-dimensional images on the retinas using various cues. The information from different cues is subsequently combined to get a single estimate of slant. Is information from the(More)
The presence of a more distant object helps judge an object's position in depth. To find out why, we examined whether misjudging a distant cube's location induces a corresponding misjudgment of a nearer sphere's location. Various configurations of a distant cube and a near sphere were presented in total darkness. Each configuration was presented twice: in(More)
An object's retinal image size is determined by a combination of its physical size and its distance, so judgments of an object's size and distance from its retinal image size are coupled. Since one does not have direct access to information about the object's physical size, people may make assumptions about how large it is likely to be. Here we investigated(More)
This paper presents results of a parametric study using GEOFRAC. Recent developments in GEOFRAC allow the user to calculate the flow in a fractured medium in a geothermal context. Both the fracture-and the flow model have been tested, and a simple parametric study was conducted in order to check the sensitivity of the output. After a brief introduction to(More)
dos capítulos 2, 3, 4, 5 e 6 foram transferidos dos autores para editoras e são reproduzi-dos sob permissão dos editores originais e sujeitos às restrições de cópia impostos pelos mesmos. iv Aos meus Pais e Irmã vi Acknowledgements The last four years were a great challenge for me. I have to thank many people who made this interesting journey possible.(More)