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Much has been written about the measurement of socio-economic position (SEP) in high-income countries (HIC). Less has been written for an epidemiology, health systems and public health audience about the measurement of SEP in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The social stratification processes in many LMIC-and therefore the appropriate measurement(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the associations between having had a fall and chronic diseases and drug use in elderly women. DESIGN Cross sectional survey, using data from the British women's heart and health study. SETTING General practices in 23 towns in Great Britain. PARTICIPANTS 4050 women aged 60-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Whether women had had(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure the coverage and uptake of systematic postal screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis and the prevalence of infection in the general population in the United Kingdom. To investigate factors associated with these measures. DESIGN Cross sectional survey of people randomly selected from general practice registers. Invitation to(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined the association between health behaviors and socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood and adult life. METHODS Self-reported diet, smoking, and physical activity were determined among 3523 women aged 60 to 79 years recruited from general practices in 23 British towns from 1999 through 2001. RESULTS The most affluent women reported(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to present the development of a miniature structured light laser projection endoscope and to quantify vocal fold length and vibratory features related to impact stress of the pediatric glottis using high-speed imaging. STUDY DESIGN The custom-developed laser projection system consists of a green laser with a 4-mm(More)
OBJECTIVES High-speed digital imaging (HSDI), unlike stroboscopy, is a frequency-independent visualization technique that provides detailed biomechanical assessment of vocal physiology due to increased temporal resolution. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical value of HSDI compared to that of stroboscopy across 3 disorder groups(More)
IMPORTANCE Evidence that longer-term and exclusive breastfeeding reduces child obesity risk is based on observational studies that are prone to confounding. OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of an intervention to promote increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on child adiposity and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, which(More)
Among older people, the detection and control of hypertension is particularly important to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. This cross-sectional survey aimed to describe the detection, treatment and control of hypertension in older British adults. A total of 3059 women and 3007 men aged 60-79 years were randomly selected from general practice age/sex(More)
BACKGROUND Socio-economic inequalities in health may be due to differential uptake of preventive and therapeutic medical services. OBJECTIVES To examine socio-economic position and self-reported use of six preventive services in a cohort of older British women. METHODS Women randomly selected from general practice age/sex registers in 23 towns were(More)
It is well known in the disciplines of neurobiology, exercise physiology, motor learning, and psychotherapy that desirable learning and behavior changes occur primarily from practice that involves high-intensity overload, variability, and specificity of training. We propose a novel treatment approach called intensive short-term voice therapy that uses these(More)