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Arsenic compounds have been abundant at near toxic levels in the environment since the origin of life. In response, microbes have evolved mechanisms for arsenic resistance and enzymes that oxidize As(III) to As(V) or reduce As(V) to As(III). Formation and degradation of organoarsenicals, for example methylarsenic compounds, occur. There is a global arsenic(More)
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of the ACR2 and ACR3 genes confers arsenical resistance. Acr2p is the first identified eukaryotic arsenate reductase. It reduces arsenate to arsenite, which is then extruded from cells by Acr3p. In this study, we demonstrate that ACR2 complemented the arsenate-sensitive phenotype of an arsC deletion in Escherichia(More)
Much is known about the transport of arsenite and antimonite into microbes, but the identities of mammalian transport proteins are unknown. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae FPS1 gene encodes a membrane protein homologous to the bacterial aquaglyceroporin GlpF and to mammalian aquaglyceroporins AQP7 and AQP9. Fps1p mediates glycerol uptake and glycerol efflux in(More)
Leishmania resistant to arsenicals and antimonials extrude arsenite. Previous results of arsenite uptake into plasma membrane-enriched vesicles suggested that the transported species is a thiol adduct of arsenite. In this paper, we demonstrate that promastigotes of arsenite-resistant Leishmania tarentolae have increased levels of intracellular thiols.(More)
Expressed in liver, aquaglyceroporin-9 (AQP9) is permeated by glycerol, arsenite, and other small, neutral solutes. To evaluate a possible protective role, AQP9-null mice were evaluated for in vivo arsenic toxicity. After injection with NaAsO(2), AQP9-null mice suffer reduced survival rates (LD(50), 12 mg/kg) compared with WT mice (LD(50), 15 mg/kg). The(More)
Resistance to the oxyanion arsenite in the parasite Leishmania is multifactorial. We have described previously the frequent amplification of the ABC transporter gene pgpA, the presence of a non-PgpA thiol-metal efflux pump and increased levels of glutathione and trypanothione in resistant cells. Other loci are also amplified, although their role in(More)
Leishmaniasis is a protozoan parasitic disease that affects 12 million people worldwide. The first line choice for the treatment of this disease is antimonial drugs. In the endemic regions, resistance to this class of drugs is a major impediment to treatment. Microbes often become resistant to drugs by mutation or down-regulation of uptake systems, but the(More)
Leukemia is the most common childhood cancer. Trisenox, the active ingredient of which is trivalent arsenic, is the first line of treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia. Since drug action usually requires uptake of the drug, it is of importance to determine the transport system responsible for Trisenox uptake. Recently, human aquaglyceroporin 9 (AQP9)(More)
The ubiquity of arsenic in the environment has led to the evolution of enzymes for arsenic detoxification. An initial step in arsenic metabolism is the enzymatic reduction of arsenate [As(V)] to arsenite [As(III)]. At least three families of arsenate reductase enzymes have arisen, apparently by convergent evolution. The properties of two of these are(More)