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Arsenic compounds have been abundant at near toxic levels in the environment since the origin of life. In response, microbes have evolved mechanisms for arsenic resistance and enzymes that oxidize As(III) to As(V) or reduce As(V) to As(III). Formation and degradation of organoarsenicals, for example methylarsenic compounds, occur. There is a global arsenic(More)
Much is known about the transport of arsenite and antimonite into microbes, but the identities of mammalian transport proteins are unknown. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae FPS1 gene encodes a membrane protein homologous to the bacterial aquaglyceroporin GlpF and to mammalian aquaglyceroporins AQP7 and AQP9. Fps1p mediates glycerol uptake and glycerol efflux in(More)
Leishmaniasis is a protozoan parasitic disease that affects 12 million people worldwide. The first line choice for the treatment of this disease is antimonial drugs. In the endemic regions, resistance to this class of drugs is a major impediment to treatment. Microbes often become resistant to drugs by mutation or down-regulation of uptake systems, but the(More)
Leishmania resistant to arsenicals and antimonials extrude arsenite. Previous results of arsenite uptake into plasma membrane-enriched vesicles suggested that the transported species is a thiol adduct of arsenite. In this paper, we demonstrate that promastigotes of arsenite-resistant Leishmania tarentolae have increased levels of intracellular thiols.(More)
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of the ACR2 and ACR3 genes confers arsenical resistance. Acr2p is the first identified eukaryotic arsenate reductase. It reduces arsenate to arsenite, which is then extruded from cells by Acr3p. In this study, we demonstrate that ACR2 complemented the arsenate-sensitive phenotype of an arsC deletion in Escherichia(More)
Resistance to the oxyanion arsenite in the parasite Leishmania is multifactorial. We have described previously the frequent amplification of the ABC transporter gene pgpA, the presence of a non-PgpA thiol-metal efflux pump and increased levels of glutathione and trypanothione in resistant cells. Other loci are also amplified, although their role in(More)
Enzymatic reduction of arsenate to arsenite is the first step in arsenate metabolism in all organisms studied. The rice genome contains two ACR2-like genes, OsACR2.1 and OsACR2.2, which may be involved in regulating arsenic metabolism in rice. Here, we cloned both OsACR2 genes and expressed them in an Escherichia coli strain in which the arsC gene was(More)
Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin (LmjAQP1) adventitiously facilitates the uptake of antimonite [Sb(III)], an active form of Pentostam® or Glucantime®, which are the first line of defence against all forms of leishmaniasis. The present paper shows that LmjAQP1 activity is modulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase, LmjMPK2. Leishmania parasites(More)
The mechanism of resistance to the metal arsenite has been studied and compared in L. mexicana, L. tropica, and L. tarentolae selected in a step by step manner for arsenite resistance. Amplification of the ABC transporter gene pgpA was found to be a frequent resistance mechanism in all species. Transfection of pgpA genes into different species indicated(More)