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Since its discovery in 2007, the encephalitis associated with antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has entered the mainstream of neurology and other disciplines. Most patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis develop a multistage illness that progresses from psychosis, memory deficits, seizures, and language disintegration into a state(More)
BACKGROUND Anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder in which the use of immunotherapy and the long-term outcome have not been defined. We aimed to assess the presentation of the disease, the spectrum of symptoms, immunotherapies used, timing of improvement, and long-term outcome. METHODS In this multi-institutional observational(More)
BACKGROUND A severe form of encephalitis associated with antibodies against NR1-NR2 heteromers of the NMDA receptor was recently identified. We aimed to analyse the clinical and immunological features of patients with the disorder and examine the effects of antibodies against NMDA receptors in neuronal cultures. METHODS We describe the clinical(More)
Interneuronal gap junctional coupling is a hallmark of neural development whose functional significance is poorly understood. We have characterized the extent of electrical coupling and dye coupling and patterns of gap junction protein expression in lumbar spinal motor neurons of neonatal rats. Intracellular recordings showed that neonatal motor neurons are(More)
Neurotrophins and tyrosine receptor kinase (Trk) receptors are expressed in skeletal muscle, but it is unclear what functional role Trk-mediated signaling plays during postnatal life. Full-length TrkB (trkB.FL) as well as truncated TrkB (trkB.t1) were found to be localized primarily to the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor- (AChR-) rich membrane at(More)
OBJECTIVE To report the clinical and immunological features of a novel autoantigen related to limbic encephalitis (LE) and the effect of patients' antibodies on neuronal cultures. METHODS We conducted clinical analyses of 10 patients with LE. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to identify the antigens. Human embryonic kidney 293 cells(More)
Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that associates with prominent memory and behavioural deficits. Patients' antibodies react with the N-terminal domain of the GluN1 (previously known as NR1) subunit of NMDAR causing in cultured neurons a selective and reversible internalization of cell-surface(More)
BACKGROUND Voltage-gated potassium channels are thought to be the target of antibodies associated with limbic encephalitis. However, antibody testing using cells expressing voltage-gated potassium channels is negative; hence, we aimed to identify the real autoantigen associated with limbic encephalitis. METHODS We analysed sera and CSF of 57 patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Some encephalitides or seizure disorders once thought idiopathic now seem to be immune mediated. We aimed to describe the clinical features of one such disorder and to identify the autoantigen involved. METHODS 15 patients who were suspected to have paraneoplastic or immune-mediated limbic encephalitis were clinically assessed. Confocal(More)
BACKGROUND Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a severe but treatable autoimmune disorder which diagnosis depends on sensitive and specific antibody testing. We aimed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of serum and CSF antibody testing in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, and the relation between titres, relapses,(More)